Threatening Of Earth Ecology System Engineering Essay

Threatening Of Earth Ecology System Engineering Essay

Global heating and ozone depletion being recognized as yarn to the Earth, which cause the threatening of Earth ecology system. Global heating occur, after earth surface is continues being heat up ( temperature lifting ) until it ‘s sufficient to do sea degree lifting. There are three chief causes that lead to the incrementation of planetary heating which it is increased of solar activity, volcanic emanation and increased of concentration of nursery gasses. Gass such as C dioxide, methane azotic oxide and refrigerants ( illustration CFC and HFC ) create nursery consequence by pin downing the heat in the lower ambiance which as stated above, cause temperature of Earth lifting. ( Houston, 2004 )

Earth ‘s ambiance was dwelling of several beds which are map as shield from the harmful UV ( UV-B ) radiation. The UV radiation is harmful to worlds, animate being and the planet itself if be exposed to it. This ozone bed being destroyed by some chemical gases that being released to the ambiance, refrigerants, halons, and methyl bromide a deathly pesticide used on the harvest. ( Houston, 2004 ) .

In order to reconstruct balance in the environment, UNITED Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) had take action to command ozone depletion and planetary heating with submitted two protocol, which it ‘The Montreal Protocol on Subtances that Deplate Ozone Layer ‘ and ‘Kyoto Protocol on Climate alteration ‘ . ( Houston, 2004 )

After the Montreal and Kyoto Protocol, there are enormous attempt withnin infrigidation and air conditioning industry to happen a proper solution for replacing to refrigerant ( CFCs ) that now being phaseout.In this regard the thermodynamics facets of replacing refrigerant, in peculiar, the effects for the system runing efficiences and the desire operating temperatures and force per unit area for the conventional infrigidation equipment, are being investigate. Recently, there has been increasing involvement in research and development in many countries, for illustration, ecological phenomena, fluids toxicology, thermodynamics, and technological belongingss of the alternate refrigerants and equipment, and usage of the new rhythm system. ( A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

By banned/ limitation of CFC, use, had initiate reseach in the environmental friendly refrigerant, which had minimum pontencial to lend on ozone depletion planetary heating process.An soaking up infrigidation finally became one of option for planetary heating and ozone depletion solution, due to

Basic of infrigidation system.

In the modern life style every family required domestic infrigidation for present nutrient from spoil. The possibility of nutrient to go spoil is higher if the nutrient is exposed to room temperature, due to rapid growing of the bacterium. At common infrigidation temperature ( 4EsC ) , bacteria growing become slower and nutrient is preserved by maintaining it cold. ( Althouse et al. , 2003 ) .

History of infrigidation

William Coolen from Glasgow University, produced infrigidation by making partial vacuity over -ethyl ether in 1794, but there are no farther betterment as failed to implement to his experience in pattern. Hand operated compressor were develop in 1834 by Perkin, which finally become the most important portion in vapour -compressor infrigidation.Demanding of infrigidation became quickly in 1920 after, du Pont, develop new substances known as fluro-chloro derivates of methane, ethane..etc or presents popular recognize as CFC. ( Aurora, 2000 ) .

Refrigeration system.

As stated above, chief map of infrigidation is to continue nutrient from acquiring spoiled by chilling it. And listed below are several common infrigidation rhythms that in used,

Vapor-compression rhythm

Gas rhythm

Absorption rhythm

Vacuum rhythm

Thermoelectric rhythm

The chief common similarity between mentioned systems is, required heat remotion from ice chest medium and released/reject it to warmer medium. And while chilling procedure occur, substance that being used in the ice chest /evaporator experienced alteration stage.And usually each rhythm will hold low-pressure and high force per unit area country.

Standard vapour -compression infrigidation system.

The wet rhythm consist of an enlargement of the fluid from the impregnation point to the wet part point 3 to indicate 4.During this procedure ( restricting ) , the heat content stays basically changeless.However, the force per unit area and temperature of the on the job fluids lessenings, and the fluids becomes a vapor-liquids as point 4.The cooled working fluids, or prefer known as refrigerant so passes to the evaporator, and at that place ( point 4 to indicate 1 ) , heat enters from part or fluids to be cooled. This portion of the procedure carried out at changeless temperature and changeless force per unit area ( ideally ) , since the working fluids in the wet part ( mention figure 1 ) .The compaction returns in the point 1 until 2, the refrigerant will get down from concentrated vapour point and so continue into superjeated vapour scope, refer figure 2. The last refrigerant will take heat at point 2 to 3, through capacitor procedure.

Figure 1.2 P-h diagram of compaction rhythm

Figure 1.1 Simple compaction rhythm

History of Absorption Refrigeration System ( ARS )

Although the rule of the soaking up -refrigeration rhythm has been known since early 1800s, the first on ewas invented by Gallic applied scientist Ferdinand P.E Carre in 1860, an intermittent petroleum ammonia soaking up setup based on the chemical affinity of ammonium hydroxide for H2O, and produced ice on a limited graduated table. The first five soaking up refrgeration system ( will turn to as ARS afterwards ) unit Carre produced were originaly for ice devising purpose.In the 1890 ‘s many big ARS unit were manufactured for chemical and crude oil industries. The development of ARS to demo slowed to standstill at 1911 as vapour -compression infrigidation system became forefront. ( A°brahim dinO«er, 2010 )

Recently, ARSs received increasing of attending due to, increasing of energy monetary value and environmental impact of refrigerating.Many companies have concentrated on ARS and now do profoundly research and development on these while market demand increased dramatically. ARSs for the industry and domestic use have been pulling increased involvement throughout the universe because of the undermentioned advantages over other infrigidation system: ( A°brahim dinO«er & A ; Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Quiet operation,

High dependability,

Long service life,

Efficient and economic sciences usage of the low-grade energy beginning ( e.g. , solar energy, waste energy, geothermic energy ) ,

Easy capacity control

No cycling losingss during on -off operations,

Simpler executions

Meeting the variable burden easy and expeditiously.

There has been increasing involvement in demanding of industrial and domestic use of the ARS. Chiefly for the intent of run intoing chilling air conditioning demands as options, because of a tendency in the universe for uses of energy beginnings, protection of the natural environmental impact. The figure of applications in assorted industries where ARSs are employed, ( A°brahim dinO«er & A ; Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Food industry ( e.g. , meat, dairy and fish industry )

Chemical and petrochemical industry


Refrigeration ‘s

Cold storage.

Type of ARSs

The soaking up system first absorbs the low -pressure vapour in an appropriate absorbing liquid.Embodied in the soaking up procedure is the transition of vapour into liquid ; since this procedure is to condensed, heat must be rejected during the procedure. There few type of soaking up of infrigidation which will be discuss after this.

Basic ARSs

In figure 1.1, a basic ARS which consists of an evaporator, a capacitor, a generator, an absorber, a solution pump, a generator and two restricting valves, is schematically shown. James Beverly & A ; George Andrew ( 1986 ) justify that soaking up infrigidation system necessitate a power input to compact the refrigerating vapour from evaporator force per unit area to the capacitor force per unit area. Pumping a liquid through the same force per unit area difference at the same mass flow rate requires less power, so it is worthwhile to seek agencies for holding the refrigerant in a liquids stage as its force per unit area rise. The strong solution ( a mixture strong in refrigerant ) , which consists of the refrigerant and absorbent is heated in the hard-hitting part of the system ( the generator ) , and ensue the pure refrigerant vapour, which straight flow to condenser. The weak solution ( weak in solutions ) flows down through a choking valve to the absorber.

The hot refrigerant vapour is cooled in the capacitor until it condenses to alter refrigerating stage from vapour to liquids. Then the refrigerant liquid passes through a choking valve into the low-pressure part of the system, the evaporator. To cut down force per unit area of refrigerant, through this valve which produced vaporisation of the refrigerant, finally consequence heat remotion from refrigerant.

After the evaporator, vapour from evaporator is absorbed in H2O in the absorber, this fade outing procedure is exothermal, so the heat must be removed from the absorber in order to maintain it ‘s temperature invariable. Besides at a given force per unit area the sum of ammonium hydroxide that can be dissolved in H2O increased as the temperature is decreased ; so the absorber temperature must be kept every bit low as possible by agencies of chilling H2O. ( James Beverly & A ; George Andrew, 1986 )

the cold refrigerant comes to the absorber and is absorbed by this weak solutions ( i.e. , absorbent ) , because of the strong chemical affinity for each other. The strong solutions is so obtained and is pumped by a solutions pump to the generator, where it is once more heated and the rhythm continues. ( A°brahim dinO«er, 2010 )

Figure 1.3 Basic ARSs system. ( beginning: A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Ammonia -water ( NHa‚? -Ha‚‚0 ) ARSs

The system shown in figure 1.2, which to the full utilize the built-in ability of H2O to absorb and let go of ammonium hydroxide as refrigerant. The sum of ammonium hydroxide vapour which can be absorbed and held in a same as system before, merely for different of analyser, rectifier and heat money changer.In a the absorber, the H2O absorb ammonium hydroxide at the capacitor temperature supplied by go arounding H2O or air, and therefore a strong solution ( about 38 % ammonia concentration ) occurs. ( A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Figure 1.4 Ammonia H2O ARSs system, ( beginning: A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

This strong solutions from the absorber enter solutions pump, which raise it ‘s force per unit area and delivers the solutions into the generator through the heat money changer. Pumped strong solutions base on ballss into generator via heat money changer where strong solutions is preheated before being discharged into ammonia generator. The generator which heated by an energy beginnings ( saturated steam or other heat beginning via heating spiral or tubing packages ) , raise the temperature of the strong solutions doing the ammonium hydroxide to divide from it. The staying weak solutions ( estimated 24 % ammonia concentrations ) absorbs some of the H2O vapour coming from the analyzer/rectifier combinations and flows down to the enlargement valve through the heat money changer.It is so throttled up into absorber for farther chilling as it picks up a new charge of the ammonium hydroxide vapour, therefore going a strong solutions. The hot ammonium hydroxide in the vapor stage from the generator is driven out of solution and rises through the rectifier for possible separation of the staying H2O vapour. Then, H2O vapour flow straight into capacitor for condensed procedure. The force per unit area of liquid ammonium hydroxide bead before it ‘s enter evaporator. The rhythm is completed when the desired chilling burden is achieved in the evaporator. ( A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Water -Lithium Bromide ( Ha‚‚0 -LiBR ) ARSs

This ARS system utilizing combination of H2O ( moving as refrigerant ) and lithium bromide ( moving as absorbent ) as working medium, far different from the other system which familiar utilizing ammonium hydroxide as refrigerant. Normally this system, it is being used in air conditioning or precooling operations operation. Crystallization tends to develop in the system, due to usage of Li bromide, and look to be important job. By dropping to crystallisations part, cause the formation of slush, ensuing obstruction in the flow line inside pipe and disrupting the public presentation of the system every bit good. Absorption system of water-Lithium is be classified into three classs, which individual -effect, double-effect and triple-effect. ( A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Water -Lithium Bromide ( Ha‚‚O- LiBr ) ARSs

Figure 1.5 Schematics of a individual consequence -ARSs, ( beginning: A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

This ARSs use a combinations of H2O ( as refrigerant ) and lithium bromide ( as absorbent ) .Water -Lithium Bromide system consists of two type of system, which it is individual consequence and dual consequence, which will be farther discuss in following portion.

Single-Effect ARSs

Each ARS are consists with an absorber, generator, capacitor, evaporator and in this system besides included restorative heat money changer. The rhythm of individual -effect ARS Begin, as shown in figure 1 when high force per unit area liquid refrigerant from capacitor base on ballss through a metering device ( 1 ) into the lower -pressure evaporator ( 2 ) and roll up in the pan or sump in the evaporator. The flashing, occurs at the entryway to the evaporator cool the staying liquid of refrigerant. As same with the other ARS system, the transportation of heat from the reasonably warm system H2O to cool and alteration into now-cool refrigerant cause the H2O ( in liquid province ) evaporate ( 2 ) .The force per unit area in evaporator ( 2 ) is equal to hoover, which it allowed refrigerating to boil in the low force per unit area, and it cause vapor from evaporator ( 2 ) , flow to the lower force per unit area country in the system, absorber ( 3 ) .

In the absorber ( 3 ) , the refrigerant is soaked with Li bromide solution. This procedure non merely make a lower force per unit area, which it is non merely cause uninterrupted flow of refrigerating flow, from evaporator to absorber but besides cause vapour to distill every bit good. Heat Is released when vapour condensed in the capacitor ( 6 ) , this heat with together heat of dilution produced as refrigerating condensate mixes with the absorbent-is transferred to the chilling H2O and is released in the chilling tower.

And in order to guarantee flawless of infrigidation rhythm, the solution must be re-concentrated, by invariably pumping ( 4 ) dilute solution from absorber to the generator ( 5 ) , where the add-on of heat boils the refrigerant from absorbent.Once the refrigerant is removed, the re-concentrated Li bromide solution return to absorber, and ready to continues the soaking up rhythm. Mean while, the refrigerant vapour liberated in the generator migrates to the ice chest portion, capacitor ( 6 ) .Then the refrigerating return to it ‘s provinces as cooling H2O pick up the heat of vaporisation carried by the vapour.the liquid refrigerant ‘s return to the metering device ( 1 ) finish the rhythm. ( A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Double -effect ARS

It is being proved that energy efficiency of soaking up infrigidation can be improved by 30 % . Method that being applied is, re-use the vapour, and recovered some sum of heat that usually be rejected by, to the chilling tower. A dual consequence ARS accomplished this by taking bluess which driven off by heating the first-state generator to drive off more H2O in a 2nd phase, which as shown is figure 2.

This system consists of two separate shells, which it is called as premier and secondary. Prime shell is positioning top of secondary shell. Secondary shell which had the same system as individual consequence ARS, that merely be reference merely now. The parametric quantity

( temperature, force per unit area, and solution concentration ) of individual consequence and dual consequence is similar. The rhythm start by generator ( premier /on the top ) being driven either by natural gas, or oil burner, or indirectly by steam. It is added to the generator of the topping rhythm ( secondary/ lower shell ) , which will bring forth refrigerating vapour at a comparatively higher temperature and force per unit area. The vapour so flux to condenser and condensed to about pure liquid refrigerant. The condensation is held at higher temperature and force per unit area and the heat of condensation is used to drive the generator is thought to be equal to sum of the heat of the condensation of refrigerant. ( A°brahim dinO«er, 2010 )

Figure 1.6 Schematics of dual -effect ARSs ( beginning: A°brahim dinO«er and Mehmet kanoAYlu, 2010 )

Properties of refrigerant.

Table 1.1 Refrigerant-absorber braces Liquid ( beginning: Prasad, 2006 )






Ammonia water




Ammonia water




Ammonia water




Ammonia water















As the rule of soaking up system, belongingss of substances necessary to respond more affinity with another substances at certain temperature and force per unit area status and besides had less affinity reaction at different status. Which this status is generated by Michael Faraday in 1842, which leads to pause vapor soaking up system, by holding absorber in the solid province. It is showed that thermic energy, can be straight applied in the chilling production, this procedure may do part toward green environment which may minimise use of CFC and electrical ( electrical use menad, consequence of power works to environment likewise pollution, use of earth stuff and more ) . ( Prasad, 2006 )

Properties character of refrigerant


Have character of vapour force per unit area which allowed boiling happen at temperature of 2EsC until -45EsC and condensation at 40EsC or supra.

High volume of enthalpy vaporisation

High critical temperature and force per unit area

Had depression of specific heat

Chemical stableness

Had character of high affinity for absorber intent and less affinity for the latter at high temperature.


Had high volume of boiling point

Had character of low viscousness

Character of low specific heat

Chemical stableness

Had character of high affinity for absorber intent and less affinity for the latter at high temperature.

The absorber and refrigerating combination posses character of,

It had high grade of negative divergence from Raoult ‘s jurisprudence.

Both mixture/substance should hold low specific heat and low viscousness.

The combination should bring forth non -corrosive mixture.

Had character of output a solutions with sum of little heat applied when dilution as it is compatible with other belongingss.

And at the minute, ammonia-water vapour is widely being used in domestic and industry. This is due of following character,

One of ammonium hydroxide character is high soluble with H2O.

Solubility of ammonium hydroxide decreased as the H2O temperature increased and frailty versa.

The concentration of ammonium hydroxide with H2O solutions will diminish as force per unit area is decreased, at changeless temperature.

The concentration, of ammonium hydroxide with H2O solutions will increased as force per unit area is increased, at changeless temperature.

The weight of solutions will decreased when ammonium hydroxide is added.

Heat is generated /produced during the formation of an ammonia-water solution

The vapor force per unit area of ammonia-water solution is less than that of pure ammonium hydroxide, at the same temperature. ( Prasad, 2006 )