Nutrition Status Of Senior Malaysians Health And Social Care Essay

Nutrition Status Of Senior Malaysians Health And Social Care Essay

Consumers throughout the universe are altering the manner they interact with nutrient. From kids to elderly, their eating wonts can hold great impact on nutrient picks and eating behaviours under different eating environment. Older people have ever been treated as a deprived group due to their incapableness to devour certain types of nutrient ( Westlake, 1993 ; Bromley and Thomas, 1995 ) , and every bit good as their low handiness to nutrient stores. Harmonizing to Gariballa and Sinclair ( 1998 ) , as lifetime additions, assorted conditions that cause serious disablement and incapableness in aged will go more of import, non merely primary concern in the country of research, but besides for the proviso of nutritionary support as portion of the health-care services. A national survey done by Lin, Mohd Taib, Kandiah, et Al. ( 1998 ) revealed that seniors is ever associated with nutritionary job, and chronic energy lack is the most prevailing particularly in lower socio-economic groups. Knowledge starts from their day-to-day dietetic wonts and probation of foods intake is required, in order to supply them a better wellness attention service. This research is aimed to bridge the spread exist between the different provinces of Malaysia senior citizens in term of their day-to-day feeding patterns.

Problem Statements

Over the past old ages, bulk of the surveies were focused on the nutrient picks, foods intake, and wellness position of senior citizens. However, research on depicting seniors ‘ feeding patterns is less concerned yet this is the chief contributable ground to the wellness of that peculiar individual. Therefore, researches on seniors ‘ feeding wonts are critical in order to finish and entree to the nutrition consumptions and wellness status. There are assorted factors influenced the determination in these surveies, including locations of survey, age, gender, instruction degree, economic and societal position, and every bit good as unwellnesss. Previous research in this country has chiefly addressed inquiries sing how many repasts are taken in a twenty-four hours, which repasts are eaten, and whether bites are taken. There is small information depicting seniors ‘ feeding patterns for case where they eat, with whom they eat, what activities they do during feeding, nutrient temperature during ingestion and the acceptable noise degree when holding repast ( Cohen-Mansfield and Jensen, 2009 ) .

1.3 Aims

This survey was conducted to accomplish the undermentioned aims:

To look into the eating wonts of seniors in Malaysia.

To analyze whether seniors adjust their diet with their unwellnesss.

To place the grounds for seniors to take addendums.

Significance of Study

These meal-related elements are of import in analyzing seniors ‘ eating wonts. Information obtained from their feeding patterns can be used to examine their eating wonts. This would ease the procedure for planing the wellness attention plans for seniors. On the other manus, resources such as medical specialties, addendums, wellness appraisal trials can be utilized maximally.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEWS

2.1 Definition of seniors

Different research workers define the existent age of “ senior citizens ” or “ aged people ” otherwise. Harmonizing to Public Service Department Malaysia ( 2005 ) , senior citizens are mentioning to those above 60 old ages old. However, in advanced and well-developed states, senior citizens are mentioning to those over 65 old ages old due to better economic status, instruction and wellness attention systems. Therefore, this survey used the same age cut-off ( over 60 old ages old ) to mention to senior citizens in Malaysia. Ageing is a phenomenon of population tendencies particularly in well-developed states which the birthrate rate is low ( Mat and Taha, 2003 ) . People ever relate the illness as aging procedure and this might do that peculiar senior lost the right aid in medical audience. There are several common disease that often occur amongst senior citizens, for case, degenerative diseases, chronic disablement diseases, contagious diseases, malignant neoplastic disease, and so on ( Pension Portal, 2005 ) . Most of the diseases occurred amongst senior citizens can be prevented at their early phase. In order to populate healthily, the first demand is to maintain balanced diet every twenty-four hours.

2.2 Seniors citizens in Malaya

The alterations in demographic passage of the population hold given rise to the addition in population of the aged around the universe. In Malaysia, senior population is in bit by bit increases over clip ( Department of Statistic, assorted old ages ) . The figure of senior citizens in Malaysia about doubled from 546 thousand people in the twelvemonth 1970 to 1.03 1000000s in 1991 ( Mat and Taha, 2003 ) . Seniors in Malaysia is expected to account for 9.9 % of entire population in 2020. In general, the Numberss of females with age over 60 are more than males, and this is most marked in Indian cultural. As the spread of age widens, the difference of Numberss is greater ( Euromonitor International, 2008 ) .

A survey done by DaVanzo and Chan ( 1994 ) shown that there are more than two-thirds of senior citizens in Malaysia live with at least one of their grownup kids. For most states, the function of a adult female has been regarded as the health professional for her household. Harmonizing to Wahyuni ( 2006 ) , a female senior who has spent her whole life caring for other people tend to go through her ulterior life in an establishment. An stray life may increase the frequence of eating entirely, which, in bend, may take to eating less on a regular basis harmonizing to scheduled repasts, or cut down the sum and types of nutrient consumed. Malaysia authorities has formulated some National Policy for seniors, such as institutional attention ( nursing houses ) that provides long-run attention or community attention, formal societal protection includes Employees Provident Fund ( EPF ) , societal security organisation ( SOCSO ) , pension strategy, old age benefit strategy and so on ( Ong, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Department of Statistic in Malaysia ( 2009 ) , by the twelvemonth of 2010, Malayan work forces are expected to populate up to 71 old ages old while adult females will populate up to 77.1 old ages. The longer life span is attributed to the betterment in handiness to wellness and medical services.

2.3 Dietary Patterns of seniors

Seniors are by and large depending on others for nutrient. They have fewer picks of nutrient due to less handiness to nutrient store and gather information. Furthermore, seniors may confront some troubles in holding their repasts such as mastication, get downing, smelling, or savoring nutrient, every bit good as fixing their ain repasts for ain ingestion ( McIntosh, Shifflet, and Picou, 1989 ) . Dietary consumption forms have important impact in wellness. A balanced diet with indispensable foods is necessary for everyone. In general, people take addendums to keep a good organic structure wellness. Some dietetic supplementation such as Vitamin B composite, ferrum and Ca tablets can be good for the aged, particularly for those who did non hold equal diets due to illness or lost of appetency ( Johnson, Donkin, Morgan, Neale, and Lilley, 2000 ) . For the involvement of survey, the hypothesis is most of the seniors take addendums as portion of their feeding patterns.

2.4 Nutrition required for seniors

There are some of import factors contribute to the nutrition forms of people, for case, educational degree, lifestyle, force per unit area, fiscal position, common nutritionary cognition and day-to-day eating wonts ( Wkya and Biernat, 2008 ) . The altering in social-demographic, economic and life styles can greatly find the nutritionary position. Basically, the dietetic demand and appetencies of seniors is different from immature people, due to the reduced degree of energy outgo as the age additions ( Caughey, Seaman, and Parry, 1995 ) . As a consequence, older people may non hold balanced foods to keep the organic structure wellness and several immune responses ( Chandra, 1991 ) . In add-on, due to the hapless digestive system and other physiological alterations on their organic structure, the nutrient consumed can non be maximally utilised and captive ( Russell, 2000 ) .

Table 1: Nutritional guidelines for nutrient prepared for aged

Energy ( Calories )

Ear

Womans aged a‰?75: 1,810 kcal ;

Work forces aged a‰?75: 2,100 kcal.

Fat

35 % of nutrient energy

Womans aged a‰?75: 70g ;

Work forces aged a‰?75: 82g.

Starch and intrinsic and milk sugars

39 % of nutrient energy

Womans aged a‰?75: 188g ;

Work forces aged a‰?75: 218g.

Non-milk extrinsic sugars

11 % of nutrient energy

Womans aged a‰?75: 53g ;

Work forces aged a‰?75: 62g.

Fibre ( Non-starch polyoses, or NSP )

DRV

18g

Protein

RNI

Womans: 46.5g ;

Work force: 53.3g

B Vitamins:

Vitamin b1

RNI

Womans: 0.8mg ;

Work force: 0.9mg.

Vitamin b2

RNI

Womans: 1.1mg ;

Work force: 1.3mg

Niacin

RNI

Womans: 12mg ;

Work force: 16mg

Vitamin bc

RNI

200I?g

Vitamin C

RNI

40mg

Vitamin A ( Retinol equivalent )

RNI

Womans: 600I?g ;

Work force: 700I?g.

Vitamin D

RNI

10mg

Calcium

RNI

700mg

Iron

RNI

8.7mg

Zinc

RNI

Womans: 7mg ;

Work force: 9.5mg.

Sodium

RNI

2,400 milligram

Potassium

RNI

350mg

Notes: these guidelines provide fixtures for the recommended alimentary content of an mean twenty-four hours ‘s nutrient for an aged over a one-week period.

EAR-Estimated mean requirement RNI-Reference alimentary consumption, DRV-Dietary mention value

Beginning: Adapted from The Caroline Walker Trust ( 1995 )

Chapter 3

Methodology

Respondents and trying sites

This survey involved the disposal of study questionnaires to seniors that are over 60 old ages old and shack in several provinces in Malaysia – Pinang Island, Kelantan, Selangor, Pahang, Perak, and Johor. Subjects were selectively recruited by utilizing non-probability convenient sampling.

Interview process and instrument

Questionnaires distribution took topographic point for a period of two hebdomads on September 2010. One hundred sets of questionnaires were distributed to topics by utilizing convenient sampling. House-by-house attack was used during the informations aggregation in lodging estate. Eating wonts were evaluated by utilizing direct interview method with standardised questionnaire.

The study questionnaire comprises of four parts. In the first portion, demographic information such as gender, age, races, matrimonial position, instruction degree, and so on were included. The 2nd portion is the nucleus constituent of questionnaire which contains seven inquiries. Questions 1 to 7 refer to day-to-day everyday feeding patterns: what types of repasts taken, whether bites are eaten, when repasts are consumed, times spend on holding their repasts, part size, temperature of repasts preferred and company. Meanwhile, portion three is consisted of inquiries 8 to 13 are which are directing to the eating environment: Locations of dining, frequence of dine out, eating houses visited, acceptableness of noise while eating and coincident activities while holding repast. The last portion is contains two inquiries: Question 14 requires respondents to reply whether they adjust their diet with the disease they suffered from ( if any ) , and inquiry 15 is to inquire whether dietetic addendums were taken by seniors with proper grounds. Each interview took about 10 proceedingss to be completed.

Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Statistical Analysis

Data analyses started with the descriptive statistics to place the demographic profile of respondents. It includes gender, race, matrimonial position and instruction degree which may perchance impact the consequences.

Table 2: Demographic Profile of Respondents

Features

Percentage

Gender

Male

42.0

Female

58.0

Race

Malay

72.0

Chinese

14.0

Indian

13.0

Others

1.0

Marital position

Single

8.0

Married without kids

1.0

Married with kids

56.0

Separated/divorced

5.0

Widow/widowed

30.0

Education degree

Primary school

35.0

High school incomplete

21.0

High school completed

28.0

Bachelor ‘s grade

7.0

No formal instruction

9.0

Monthly family income

& lt ; RM1000

52.0

RM1000-RM2999

34.0

RM3000-RM4999

12.0

RM5000 and above

2.0

Retirement

Yes

67.0

No

33.0

Note: Age of respondents range from 60-84 old ages old ( Mean = 66.11 A± 4.68 )

The respondents recruited are all 60 old ages old and above, with the average age 66.11 old ages old. There are about equal distribution of respondents in footings of gender, which the figure of females ( 58.0 % ) somewhat more than males ( 42.0 % ) . Majority of them are Malay which consisted of 72.0 % of the entire respondents, followed by 14.0 % of Chinese, 13.0 % of Indian and 1.0 % of other races. By mentioning to the matrimonial position, 56.0 % of the entire respondents are married with kids, 30.0 % is widowed, 8.0 % is individual, 5.0 % is separated or divorced and 1.0 % is married without kids. For this scope of age, most of them merely have primary instruction ( 35.0 % ) and completed their high school ( 28.0 % ) . Seniors with unmarried man ‘s degree represents a little sample which merely 7.0 % of entire respondents. More than half of the respondents are retired ( 67.0 % ) and have their monthly family income less than RM1000 ( 52.0 % ) .

Table 3: Seniors ‘ Eating Habits

Features

Percentage

Types of repast

Breakfast

98.0

Brunch

25.0

Lunch

99.0

High-tea

44.0

Dinner

93.0

Supper

13.0

Bite during the twenty-four hours

Regularly

8.0

Sometimes

54.0

None

38.0

Time of holding repast

Breakfast

Before 7am

11.2

7am-8am

41.8

8am-9am

33.7

After 9am

13.3

Lunch

Before 12pm

1.0

12pm-1pm

20.2

1pm-2pm

48.5

After 2pm

30.3

Dinner

Before 6pm

1.1

6pm-7pm

6.5

7pm-8pm

29.0

After 8pm

63.4

Meal length

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

& lt ; 15mins

58.1

13.1

12.9

15-30mins

38.8

78.8

76.3

30-45mins

3.1

7.1

9.7

& gt ; 45mins

0

1.0

1.1

Part of nutrient

Small

50.0

Medium

47.0

Large

3.0

Temperature of repast when ingestion

& lt ; 40A°C

21.0

40A°C -59A°C

19.0

60A°C-74A°C

49.0

& gt ; 75A°C

11.0

Company when eating

Entirely

24.0

Spouse

42.0

Friends

22.0

Childs

51.0

About all of the respondents take breakfast, tiffin and dinner as their regular repasts each twenty-four hours, while noshing is sometimes happening during the twenty-four hours. Breakfast is the most of import component to get down a new twenty-four hours. Besides that, by holding breakfast, it will give them more strength and endurance to prosecute in physical activity ( Zelman, 2007 ) . Brunch is a combination of breakfast and tiffin that are normally served in late forenoon. Merely 25.0 % of the entire respondents take their brunch. Most of them which have taken their breakfast are seldom to take brunch because they normally still experience in full after about several hours took the breakfast repasts. Lunch is of import for seniors particularly to give energy and refuel after a busy forenoon or to fuel up for an afternoon exercise, therefore it encounter 99.0 % for the respondents who take tiffin. On the other manus, there is merely 44.0 % of the seniors take high-tea whilst there is merely 13.0 % of the seniors take supper in their day-to-day life. The low proportion may due to their sleep early wonts.

54.0 % of the entire respondents bite during the twenty-four hours sometimes, whilst 38.0 % of the staying respondents do non take bites at all. The clip for seniors to hold their breakfast, tiffin and dinner are 7am-8am ( 41.8 % ) , 1pm-2pm ( 48.5 % ) and after 8pm ( 63.4 % ) severally. The repast length for breakfast is the shortest, which merely take less than 15 proceedingss to be completed. For tiffin and dinner, seniors spend about 15-30 proceedingss in holding their tiffin ( 78.8 % ) and dinner ( 76.3 % ) severally. The longer clip spent in holding tiffin and dinner may because of the heavier repast served compared to breakfast, therefore necessitate more clip to masticate and swollen.

Seniors tend to eat the sum that they think is merely nice to do them experience full. They prefer to take a little ( 50.0 % ) or medium ( 47.0 % ) part of nutrient, and about half of them ( 49.0 % ) will devour the nutrient within 11-20 proceedingss after cooked, which is within the temperature scope of 60A°C to 74A°C. In footings of company, most of the seniors will hold their repast with their partner ( 42.0 % ) and kids ( 51.0 % ) , instead than entirely ( 24.0 % ) of with friends ( 22.0 % ) .

Table 4: Seniors ‘ Eating Environment

Features

Percentage

Location of eating

Own place

66.0

Dine out

34.0

Locations of holding repast at place

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Dining room

42.9

53.5

60.5

Kitchen

49.0

42.4

31.4

Populating room

5.1

4.1

8.1

Others

3.0

Frequency of dine out per month

1-2 times

18.0

3-5 times

52.0

6-10 times

7.0

More than 10 times

8.0

Never

15.0

Restaurant visited if dine out

Fast nutrient

31.0

Family manner

30.0

Casual dining

13.0

Fine dining

16.0

Traditional nutrient

13.0

Vegetarian

3.0

Coffee store

18.0

Others

3.0

Acceptability of noise

Yes

20.0

No

46.0

Depends

34.0

Activities while eating

Read

42.0

Watch Television

28.0

Listen to music/ wireless

19.0

Socialize

30.0

Make nil

50.0

Consequence from table 4 shows that bulk of the seniors will dine in their ain place ( 66.0 % ) . This may due make they experience comfort and familiar with the dining environment in their house. For the location of holding repasts at place, dining room and kitchen are the two chief countries for seniors to take their breakfast, tiffin and dinner.

There are 52.0 % of the entire respondents dine out 3-5 times per month, and the major eating houses they visit are fast nutrient ( 31.0 % ) , household manner ( 30.0 % ) , java store ( 18.0 % ) and all right dining ( 16.0 % ) . There are besides some other topographic points such as route side nutrient stall and workplace canteen which consists of 3.0 % if they dine out. The acceptableness of noise while holding repast was asked, the consequence shows that about half of the entire respondents can non digest with the noise ( 46.0 % ) , while 34.0 % of the respondents will do acquire annoyed or complaint depends on their temper and state of affairs. The higher per centum goes to unacceptable because seniors like a harmoniousness and comfort environment to bask the repast.

The concurrent activities that seniors will make while holding repasts are reading ( 42.0 % ) , socialise ( 30.0 % ) , watch Television ( 28.0 % ) , or listen to music or wireless ( 19.0 % ) . However, there are still 50.0 % of the entire respondents do nil when basking their repasts.

Table 5: Diet Adjustment and Consumption of Supplement

Features

Percentage

Adjust diet with disease

Yes

68.0

No

32.0

Take addendum

Yes

43.0

No

57.0

Reason for taking addendum

Benefit emphasized in TV/ Pharmacy

4.7

Prescribed by doctor/physician

58.1

Self-awareness

37.2

Table 5 shows the seniors ‘ diet accommodation and ingestion of addendums harmonizing to the disease they suffered from. As expected, 68.0 % of the entire respondents adjust their diet harmonizing to the disease they suffered from, such as avoid high sugar and oil content nutrient, or devour more veggies instead than meats. However, there are 57.0 % of the entire respondents do non take addendums, this may due to their mentality that addendums are expensive unneeded materials and will make load to the household. For those who take addendums in their day-to-day life, the ground of taking addendums are chiefly prescribed by physicians or doctor ( 58.1 % ) , self-awareness ( 37.2 % ) . The benefit of the addendum emphasized in Television or pharmaceutics seems non appeal to be the ground for seniors to devour it, as it merely account for 4.7 % .

Chapter 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Drumhead

In overall, about all the seniors that participated in this survey take breakfast, tiffin and dinner as their regular repasts every twenty-four hours. The eating patterns such as repast length, locations, coincident activities, company, part, and nutrient assortment can be differing greatly by repast. Seniors rarely dine out and usually have their repasts with their partner and kids. Majority of the seniors adjust their diet with disease, yet still more than half of the entire respondents did non take addendum in their day-to-day life. For those who take addendums, the prescriptions of physicians or doctor have become the major grounds that trigger them to devour it.

5.2 Deductions and Application

This survey contributes to the bing literature on the seniors ‘ eating wont in Malaysia which has ne’er been revealed earlier. In item, seniors ‘ day-to-day feeding patterns was explained. From the managerial position, the cognition of eating-related patterns can be utile to those supplying service for seniors for keeping continuity with familiar modus operandis and concentrating on those patterns that are most of import.

5.3 Restrictions and Recommendation

This survey was limited by a little sample size and the consequences should be interpreted carefully. On the other manus, the sample had a self-selection prejudice and is non representative of the population. There is projected 14.4 % of the entire Chinese Malaysian in 2020 are seniors, while 7.9 % of the entire Malay cultural Malaysian are seniors. Relatively, in this survey, there are 72 % of the entire participants were Malays while Chinese merely 14 % ( Department of Statistic Malaysia, 2001 ) . Future surveies may justify oversampling on Chinese seniors to look into the cultural comparings.

Furthermore, the standardised questionnaire used may non applicable to some respondents which do non take certain repasts, particularly in the inquiries 3, 4, and 9. To extinguish this job, an informal interview is recommended to replace the standardised study questionnaire. This provides an chance to examine and inquire more inquiries to acquire more in-depth information.

Apart from the above, this survey did non take consideration into those seniors who stay in nursing or retirement houses, which the alteration in eating forms might happen since the repast services are served duly and adequately. Future survey in this country should take this into consideration to avoid the prejudice.

Mentions

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