The early history of malaysia

The early history of malaysia

The First chapter efforts to bring out Malaysia ‘s historical background, concentrating chiefly on the prehistoric age and the early history touching on subjects such as the people and the antediluvian lands, the Malay land of Malacca, the colonial epoch and the Emergency.

History has proven that Malaysia is non a new state. Human has been populating in several countries in the state since the Stone Age.

Early Inhabitants

Towards the terminal of the last decennary, a human skull was found 12 pess belowground in the Niah Caves, Sarawak. Test revealed that the skull belonged to a 15 twelvemonth old male child who had been buried in the caves some 40,000 old ages ago. The find provided grounds of the being of dwellers in Malaysia, several thousand old ages ago, taging the early beginnings of her history.

However, subsequently findings in Tampa Fort, Ulu Perak, confirmed leftovers of ancient civilisation in Kuala Tampan to be 74,000 thousand old ages old.

The ancient history of Malaysia spans 4 chief stages:

  1. The Paleolithic Age
  2. Mesolithic Age
  3. Neolithic Age
  4. Bronze Age.

Refer to Postpone 1.1 – Ancient Time periods and Early Inhabited Areas

Ancient Ports

Since 5,000 old ages ago, several topographic points in Malaysia, particularly those along the coasts, grew to go really of import ports for local occupants and the remainder of the universe. This is because Peninsula Malaysia is located at the hamlets between Chinese, Indian and Arabian trade paths. Besides that, Malaysia ‘s natural resources attracted many foreign merchandisers particularly from Arabia, India and China.

Several ports were built in the state at that clip, like the of import ports of:

  1. Kuala Selinsing in Perak
  2. Jenderam Hilir in Selangor
  3. Santubong in Sarawak

Malaysia was rich with natural resources such as rosin, cane, gold and Sn ore.

Malaysia has been renowned as a great trade country. Indian merchandisers named Peninsula Malaysia as Suvarnabumi, which means Golden Earth and Ptolemy, a celebrated Greek geographer, named it Golden Chersonese, intending Golden Peninsula. These indicated that the Malays were celebrated in trade since ancient times.

Old Malay Kingdom

Several great lands rose up in Peninsula Malaysia and the countries environing the Malay Archipelago. Poweful Malay Kingdoms existed in the Malay Archipelago since the early portion of the first century. These lands were centre of trade, authorities and the spread of faith.


Democracy is a construct that is really meaningful to a state that respects the freedom of the person in finding the leading of the state.

Democracy is synonymous with the looks such as the voice of the people, the freedom of the people or the people that rule


  1. Political parties
  2. Campaigners
  3. Fishing for electors
  4. Banners
  5. Ballot boxes
  6. State legislative assembly and
  7. Parliament

Most of import issue here is the action of the citizen who fulfills the conditions for vote. The procedure of taking a representative is termed “ to vote ” . The whole procedure determines which candidate or party wins. This is called election.


  • Elections give the citizens the right to pick their ain authorities.
  • Elections allow seting into pattern the rules of freedom of a citizen, that is, the freedom of the people to find or take their ain leaders.
  • The campaigners chosen by the citizens whether for the House of Representatives ( Federal degree ) or State Legislative Assembly ( State degree ) are responsible to the electors from their ain constituency.

There will be competition among the figure of parties that want to organize the authorities. The party that wins the election at the parliamentary degree with a bulk, will organize the Cardinal authorities while the party that wins at State Legislative Assembly will organize the State authorities.

The party that wins should carry through the party ‘s promises in the election run. This is the societal contract in the elections.


  1. the general elections – for the whole state
  2. by – elections – considered a general elections because the construct itself involves taking a representative by the citizens.

Differences: –

The first one, is merely held after Parliament or State legislative is dissolved. The bye-elections do non affect disintegration or any of the assembly.


  • Every 5 old ages. However, a general elections can besides he held before the term is up. The Agong must fade out Parliament. This occurs at Federal degree
  • Elections must be held within 60 yearss in west Malaysia and 90 yearss in east Malaysia.

The bye-election is held at the decease of a representative or member of the State or Parliamentary or a vacant place.


  1. Age 21
  2. Resides in an election division on the day of the month.

But, if you are non registered as a elector, you can non vote.

A “ non-residing ” elector can still vote if: –

  1. a Malayan citizen who is working in the Armed forces or commonwealth states.
  2. Populating overseas but working for the federal or province authorities.
  3. Analyzing aboard.


  1. in gaol or non to the full sound of head
  2. in gaol for more than 12 months in any commonwealth states


Is to convert the people, that the pattern of democracy is to the full and decently carried out. Article 113 of the fundamental law says that the EC is responsible for pull offing and administrating the elections. 3 chief countries of EC are

  1. pull up the lodgers of the electoral constituencies
  2. prepare and verify the electors ‘ list for elections
  3. pull off the election procedure for the Parliamentary and State legislative constituencies.

The members of EC are appointed by the Agong, ie a president, a deputy and 3 other members.

Vote AND BALLOTING- read up…page 98


In general elections, citizens will take 2 campaigners who are deemed qualified to stand for them in both the Houses ( federal and province ) .

Any Malayan citizens 21 old ages and above qualifies to go a State or Federal excepts if the individual has lost his right to go a member. The grounds for this may be: –

  1. non sound of head
  2. insolvent
  3. salaried station ( govt employees )
  4. failure to subject his/her statement of disbursals for the Parliamentary or State within 33 yearss after the proclamation of the election consequences.
  5. Found guilty of condemnable charges and was sent to imprison for more than 1 twelvemonth.
  6. Obtains foreign citizen ship.
  7. Found guilty of an offense related to elections.

Senate Members

  • Parliament has 2 Houses i.e the House of Representatives ( HR ) and the Senate. ( S ) HR is to pull up the measures and argument on them, while S is responsible for farther arguments and examination of the measures that the HR had passed.
  • The members of the Senate besides known as Senators, harmonizing to article 45 of the fundamental law are selected and appointed. Members that are picked, represents the provinces, 2 in each province are chosen by Schedule 7 of the fundamental law.
  • Senators who are appointed, consists of those who have rendered first-class services in public services or have been successful in concern, agribusiness, art/social public assistance. A individual can be appointed as a Senator from age 30 onwards.


For 1 term ( 3 old ages ) but non more than 2 footings ( 6 old ages ) . The function of the Senator is besides of import particularly in carefully traveling through the measures before their presentation to the Agong


Chapter 6


  • The fundamental law of Malaysia was born at the same clip as the birth of Malaysia state in 1963.
  • A fundamental law is a aggregation of steps and guidelines for modulating the disposal of the state. The guidelines contain, among other things, the footing for doing the Torahs so that the regnant authorities can set the state in order reasonably and expeditiously, basic freedoms, rights and duties of assorted parties including the authorities and the people, citizenship, bench, finance, general elections and distribution of power among responsible parties as in federal and province govn.


It is from Federation of Malaya Constitution that the Malayan Constitution ( M.U. ) Begin. With the licking of Japan at the terminal of 2nd universe war, the administrative order in Malaya, Singapore and Brunei changed. By 1964, the state of affairs was as follows:

  1. The North Borneo company gave up its rights and power over north Borneo.
  2. Charles Brook surrendered his power to Sarawak
  3. The Malay provinces were divided into 3 signifiers of authorities, the Straits colonies, the Federated Malay States and the Non Federated Malay States.

With the above alterations, Singapore, north Borneo and Sarawak became separate British districts. Following this, the British combined the provinces of Penang and Malacca with the other nine Malay provinces and put up the Malayan Union on 1st April 1946.

MU was dissolved and a new fundamental law was drawn up on Feb 1st 1948 and was named Federation of Malaya Constitution 1948. following this, a British High Commissioner was placed in the cardinal govn as the highest decision maker. The Executive and Legislative council represented the local people.

The blessing of the 1948 understanding stated the readying towards self-government. The general elections for make fulling 52 seats in the Federal legislative council was held in July 1955. The Alliance won 51 out of 52 seats and Tuanku Abdul Rahman leader of the party became the Prime Minister.

The success of the multi-racial party was positive.

  1. The British believed that the colonial districts understood the multi-racial political sharing.
  2. The British must be prepared for demand by the locals for independency.
  3. There are consciousness among the citizens in the Federation of Malaya to construct a new individuality utilizing a new attack by working together utilizing the same means.

Following a constitutional meeting in London in 1956, attended by Malayan royalties and govt rep, a committee called REID COMMISSION was formed under the president ship of LORD REID to pull up a new fundamental law for a free and independent Federation of Malaya.

The Reid Commission was a royal comm. approved by the Queen of England and besides the Malay regulations. The comm. consisted of legal experts from UK, Aust, India and Pakistan. They produced a fundamental law that was strong and with authorization. The fundamental law grew in strength, was practical and respected. Finally the bill of exchange of the Malayan fundamental law was accepted and declared as the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya on 31st August 1957 and honoured the Federation of Malay as a free and independent state.

6 old ages subsequently, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak joined Malaya to go Malaysia. Because of more ethic groups fall ining Malaya, the Cobbold committee was set up in April 1962. England relinquished her power over North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. These 3 states so became independent and combined with the Federation of Malaya to organize the Malayan Federation with its ain fundamental law.


The Malayan fundamental law allocates power to the Federal and State degrees. At the federal degree Parliament, it is a legislative organic structure with powers to do Torahs ( Acts of the Apostless ) while the province degree is empowered to do Torahs ( passages – do Torahs ) . Both organic structures are empowered to do Torahs and these Torahs are legal as recorded in the fundamental law itself.

Parliament besides has the power to amend Torahs that has been made, following the powers made by the fundamental law. It is clear that the Constitution is supreme. Is at that place any other party that is supreme in Malaysia? Yes but non overruling the fundamental law. The Yang Di Pertuan Agong is supreme as stated in the fundamental law: ( mention to page 111 )

  1. The Agong is the cheif caput of the province
  2. Agong symbolizes the state.
  3. Agong is a componet of Parliament and state ‘s supreme caput
  4. Agong is the supreme commanding officer of the armed forces.
  5. Agong appoints Chief justness and Judgess
  6. All official govn actions and executing of the state ‘s ordinances are carried out in the name of the Yang di Pertuan Agong.

The Content of the Fundamental law: The Malayan fundamental law contains 15 subdivisions, 183 clauses or Articles and 15 Agendas

The chief characteristics of the fundamental law are-

  1. Malayan is a federation
  2. Malayan is a constitutional monarchy
  3. Malaysia is a state that patterns parliamentary democracy
  4. Religious freedom with Islam as the official faith of Malaya
  5. Domination of the fundamental law and the regulation of jurisprudence
  6. Doctrine of the separation of power in which the bench, the legislative and the govn has each its freedom to transport out its different maps with no struggle of involvement.
  7. Validity and transparence of the bench with sole powers subject to the commissariats of the fundamental law
  8. National linguistic communication, citizenship and the particular rights of the Malays and the native folk of Sabah and Sarawak.

Question: What do you understand by the construct “ Supremacy of the Constitution “ ? Explain the supreme characteristics of the Malayan Constution.


Chapter 6 provided an account on a figure of basic issues associating to Malaysian fundamental law. The background of the Malayan fundamental law and some of its characteristics of its domination were examined in item.

This sections provides a speedy expression at how the fundamental law is able to go on working as a whole. The subject to be discussed are linguistic communication, Citizenship, Basic rights and the particular places of the Malays and ethic groups from Sabah and Sarawak.

Language: The demand for a National Language- Malay linguistic communication that becomes the linguistic communication to replace the English Language. The Malay Language becomes the official linguistic communication for communicating and was realized to be of import for unifying the people of different ethic beginning, each with their ain spoken linguistic communication. The Malay linguistic communication subsequently became the Malayan linguistic communication as this determination was recorded as Article 152, Section X11 of the Malayan Constitution.

Religion: Muslimism is the official faith of the Federation, but other faiths are allowed to be practiced in peace and harmoniousness. ( Article 1 )

In provinces that have a swayer or grand Turk, they became the caput of Islam in the province concerned ( Article 2 )

For provinces with swayer or grand Turk, the Yang di Pertuan Agong is the caput of Islam.

The importance of Religion – is the most basic affair in life. It touches upon the really being of the person in the universe, together with other existences, who are all God ‘s creative activity. In the Rukun Negara, the first rule of the Rukun Negara is “ Belief in God ” . Regardless of the faith that a Malayan believes in, the national political orientation emphasizes the importance of holding a faith.

Citizenship: Is a particular position held by the people to hold the right to be in a state. This position gives rights, benefits and certain installations. Some of the particular rights as a citizen are:

  1. the right to vote in an election
  2. the right to take portion in political relations
  3. the right to make full a station that is entirely for citizens merely
  4. free to have landed belongings
  5. the right to have benefits and installations including public assistance benefits, instruction and so on.
  6. Freedom of motion throughout the state and
  7. The right non to be exiled.

In return, the citizens should carry through their duties and expected to:

  • give national service including fall ining the ground forces.
  • Abide the jurisprudence
  • Contribute to the productiveness of the state
  • Participate and back up national programmes as Independence Day jubilation.


Is based on one of the followers:

  1. Jus Soli – based on the Torahs of the birth topographic point. Citizenship is automatic for people born in Malaysia between Independence twenty-four hours ( 31st Aug 1957 ) and October 1962, irrespective of parents position.
  2. Those born after 1962, can go citizens if either parents is a citizen at the clip of birth ; at the clip of birth, either parents has been shacking in the state or ; at the clip of his/her birth he/she was non a citizen of any state.

  3. Jus Sanguinis – harmonizing to blood descent. Relies entirely on the citizenship position of the male parent. If the male parent of a freshly born is a citizen of the federation, he excessively becomes citizen, irrespective of where he was born ( in or out of the state ) . However, for a kid of a citizen is born outside the state, the kid merely inherits the male parent ‘s citizenship position if
    1. his male parent was born in Malaya
    2. his male parent holds a station in the public service at the federal or province degree
    3. his birth was registered at the office of a Malayan consulate or with the Malayan govn within one twelvemonth of his birth.
  4. Marriage – Giving the right to foreign adult females who is married to a Malayan citizen to use to go a citizen. Citizenship is given through enrollment and that is:
    1. if the hubby is a citizen in October 1962 or prior to that and matrimony is still adhering or
    2. the foreign adult female has lived in the federation for more than 2 old ages before the application is made, has the purpose to go on populating in the federation and is of good behavior.
  5. Naturalization – Article 19 of the Malayan fundamental law provides chances to occupants who are non born in Malaysia to go Malayan citizens. Applicants are required to carry through:
    1. aged 21 and above
    2. have lived in the federation for at least 10 out of the 12 old ages from the day of the month of application
    3. hold purpose to populate for good in the state
    4. good behavior
    5. hold sufficient cognition of the Malay linguistic communication


    2 ways: –

    1. he rejects the citizenship for personal grounds and
    2. he has violated the Torahs and committed a forbidden action, that can be one of the followers:
    1. he has become citizen of another state
    2. he participates in the foreign state ‘s elections or possesses a foreign state ‘s passport.
    3. A adult female becomes a citizen of a foreign state through matrimony with a foreign adult male
    4. Acts negatively demoing he is no longer loyal to Malaysia
    5. Has concern or ties with a hostile state
    6. Citizenship has been falsely obtained.

    Chapter 8


    Malaysia is a plural society of many cultural groups. In West Malaysias, the largest cultural groups are the Malays. Chinese and Indians. In Sabah and Sarawak, the figure of cultural groups is even bigger including among them the Kadazan, Bajau, Bidayuh, Iban, Kayan, Kenyah and Murut.

    These groups are categorized into Bumiputra and non Bumiputra.. In footings of the size of the group, the Bumiputras far outnumbered the non-bumiputras. Based on employment distribution, the bumiputras continue to rule the agricultural sector. The Chinese and Indians excessively go on excessively be prevailing in the professions, as comptrollers, applied scientists, attorneies and designers. Most of the Malays were originally from Indonesia, chiefly from Minangkabau, Javanese, Banjar, Bugis and Boyan Indians from India and Chinese from China.

    Their migration to Malaysia was influenced by the push and pull factors.

    Push and pull factors – from Indonesia to Malaya

    1. Poverty – increasing population and increased revenue enhancements by the Dutch settler in Indonesia.
    2. Political stableness and turning economic system in Malaya – Sn ore and plantation and Malaya was peaceable.
    3. Indonesian traits- those of Bugis descent were skilled crewmans and man of affairs. They travel to other countries.
    4. Political instability in Indonesia – Dutch colonized Indonesia. the hatred towards them were besides factors that push them to migrate to Malaya.

    From China to Malaya

    Most of the Chinese in Malaya originated from Fukien, Kwangtung and Kwangsi in south China. Factors that lead the Chinese to migrate to Malaya are:

    1. troubles of life in China – rapid addition of population, frequent inundations and drouth and limited natural resources.
    2. Political instability in the territories of south China – the local Chinese considered the Manchu Dynasty swayers as aliens, therefore they were against the land and this threatened their lives.
    3. Growth in the Sn and gum elastic created a demand for labor.
    4. Political stableness in Malaya under the British rule-economy improved.
    5. Migration facilities- transit systems as steamers made it easy for Chinese to migrate.
    6. Chinese population features – people from Kwangtung and Fukien are really industrious and like going. These factors encourage them to migrate.

    From India to Malaya

    Most of the Indians are Tamils, Malayalis, Telegus and Sikhs. Factors that led the Indians to migrate to Malaya are:

    1. Troubles populating in India: – work was scarce. Rapid addition in population, natural catastrophes
    2. Rapid economic system development in Malaya – gum elastic was introduced, followed by thenar oil – increased occupations.
    3. Encouragement from the British govt – the British encouraged the migration of Indians to work in plantations, clerks and proficient and buildings.

    Chapter 9


    Integrity and national integrating is of import to guarantee the people live in peace and harmoniousness. Conflict among the races can convey problem and perturbation to the state with inauspicious effects on its development

    In Malaysia, integrity has as its foundation the national political orientation ( the Rukun Negara ) . It is hoped that national integrity can be achieved through integrity at the undermentioned degrees: territorial, economic, political, educational, societal and cultural. The ultimate aim is of class an overall and permanent integrating.

    Plural Society:

    A complex society such as Malaysia is called a plural society, from the point of position of colony, politically and socially. Every group has their ain faith, civilization, linguistic communication, believing and manner of life. .

    Cultural Relationss in Malaya

    The procedure of Integration: The theory of Racial Relationss can be broken down into 5 sectors: –

    1. Segregation – in the country of abode, school systems, transit and public installations. It occurs whether consciously by jurisprudence ( de jure ) or non based on jurisprudence ( de facto ) an illustration of segregation de jure is the apartheid policy ( official authorities policy ) that was practiced in South Africa.
    2. Accommodation – cultural groups are cognizant of each other ‘s norms and values but they continue to safeguard their ain life civilization. They live in harmoniousness and esteem one another.
    3. Acculturation – is when a minority group accepts the norms, values and forms of behavior ( civilization ) of the bulk group. This procedure is a procedure of adoption or accepting the cultural elements of the bulk group, without altering the original ; cultural elements.
    4. Assimilation – the entry into a dominant society through friendly relationship and close connexion.
    5. Amalgamation – when different civilization /races mixes to organize types of new civilization and race, which is done through inter-marriage between cultural groups or races.

    History of Ethic dealingss – ( read up -page 165 )

    1. phase of co-existence
    2. phase of frequent external contact
    3. phase of via media
    4. phase of integrity
    5. phase of integrating



    1. Prejudice – a pre-judgment action of actions. The job with this in the state is, it normally takes the signifier of “ bad outlooks ” of other races. This job continues to exists because even though new positive information comes up refering the other groups the bing bias persists.
    2. Communalism – the attitude of favoring one ‘s ain cultural community. In Malaysia, this phenomenon is rather obvious in the economic, political, societal and cultural domains whereby an cultural group favoritism towards those from within the group. Such communal behaviors can easy take to tension in relationship and societal spreads between persons or groups of different cultural beginning.
    3. Ethnocentrism – is the belief that one ‘s ain civilization is superior to that of others. Any other cultural component that is different is considered incorrect, bad or even unsafe.

    Prejudice, communalism and ethnocentrism are “ feelings inside ” that can give rise to actions of fondness or unfairness towards other groups. Such behavior is described as favoritism.

    Causes and Reinforcing Obstacle to Integration:

    1. Ignorance of other cultural groups – refers to the deficiency of apprehension of the manner of life, the life conditions and the jobs with the other races. As a consequence, there is a deficiency of grasp and regard for other races.
    2. Procedure of socialisation limited to within cultural groups – Different races have different ways of conveying up kids, particularly at place.
    3. Communal political relations Barisan Nasional is most meaningful and practical because it joins together assorted political parties even though each is a communal party.
    4. Socio-economical differences – refers to the history of colonialism. Peoples feel deprived of the opportunity to portion in basking the state ‘s wealth. Programs implemented to cut down the socio-economic spread fail to do certain certain groups happy. They become covetous, leery, scared and feel neglected.
    5. Cultural differences – easy get down off feelings of bias, racism and ethnocentricism ( utmost political position ) all of which pose a menace to national integration.. These differences are often revealed in all sorts of societal and cultural activities.

    Govn attempts in managing the job of failing in integrity can be summarized in 3 of import stairss:

    1. Political attempts – actions are taken therough the legislative systems, where Torahs and Acts of the Apostless made by parliament to settle jobs related to integrity ; illustration – allotments that provided protection to communities, the Seditions Act aimed at forestalling persons from raising sensitive issues in public, Internal Security Act – ISA is aimed at protecting the state ‘s involvement and internal security and The Alliance – Barisan Nasional – positions among the races are coordinated and resolved by the party ‘s representatives.
    2. Economic Effort- the steps taken are recorded in a 5 twelvemonth program and govn development policies. The purpose is to hold economic quality among the races by supplying loans, concern licences and work contracts.
    3. Social and Cultural attempt – by sharing the values among the races. The educational course of study is adjusted for the debut of cultural elements and interactions among the assorted races. In 1971, National Culture was introduced to make a national individuality for the Malayan society.

    The Basis of Racial Unity in Malaysia

    The cardinal grounds behind Malaysia ‘s success in unifying her people are: ( page 173 )

    1. sharing of political power
    2. democratic authorities
    3. sound economic growing
    4. cultural via media

    Chapter 10


    The RN was officially proclaimed by the Agong on 31st Aug 1971, on the thirteenth National Day jubilation.

    The determination to explicate the RN was made after the May 13, 1969 calamity. The racial clang had eroded the people ‘s assurance in race dealingss in the state.

    What really caused the May 13 public violence? A misinterpretation in Kampong Baru, KL. Some resistance political party were over enthusiastic in their jubilation of the party ‘s triumph in the general election. Their actions went a spot excessively far and beyond the confines of the jurisprudence and societal moralss. Humiliating cries and boisterous behavior angered some protagonists from another party. The two opposing parties, one was preponderantly Chinese and the other was strictly a Malay party. Uncontrolled exchange of words shortly developed into a racial clang between the Malays and Chinese. To command this, the govn rapidly imposed curfew and declared a province of exigency. Parliament was suspended.

    The exigency state of affairs dragged for more than a twelvemonth. During this period several attempts were made to reconstruct the peace and to develop a sense of duty and nationalism. A particular commission was established to explicate RUKUN NEGARA.


    1. Achieving a greater integrity among the people ;
    2. Keeping a democratic manner of life ;
    3. Making a society in which the state ‘s wealth can be enjoyed together in a just and just mode ;
    4. Guaranting a broad attitude towards the rich and diverse cultural traditions ; and
    5. Constructing a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern scientific discipline and engineering.

    The RN is directed towards developing a modern and progressive state where people together enjoy the state ‘s wealths in a just and merely mode, populating in a peaceable environment, esteeming each other, despite cultural and cultural differences.


    4. RULE OF Law
    5. DECORUM ( socially acceptable behavior ) AND MORALITY


    The basic aim is to better the quality of life of the people.

    Development can be looked at ;

    1. Social development – The status where people are capable of obtaining basic demands like nutrient, shelter and vesture.
    2. Economic development – alterations in income. Increase in national or per capita income or the monthly income of a citizen are indexs of economic development. With this, the governments can supply facilties like infirmaries, clinics, schools, H2O and electricity, roads and etc.
    3. Attitude development – negative attitudes can stultify the development procedure. It can detain the accomplishment of the national development. Attitude alteration is frequently the determiner and foundation is the first measure to accomplish economic alterations.

    National Development Aims:

    The national development policy does non curtail itself to merely conveying advancement to the urban countries but to rural countries as good. The purpose is to heighten national economic growing, every bit good as to guarantee a balance in growing between urban and rural sectors. This will so cut down the poorness spread within these sectors.

    In Malaysia, the policies enshrined in the national development program are to be enjoyed by all Malayan citizens. Social development mentioned supra is non limited to one peculiar cultural group, but goes beyond cultural and geographical boundaries.

    After Independence:

    Malaysia inherited after independency, the leftovers of the colonialist ‘s development policies. The chief challenge of the Alliance govt ( UMNO/MCA/MIC ) was to develop the economic system to profit the state ‘s ain citizens.

    Govn planning in accomplishing the above national development aims is set out in the national development policies. This policy can be found in govn paperss known as the Five Year National Development Plan ( NDP ) , released every 5 old ages. The NPD can be considered the chief docket in the planning and execution of economic and societal development for the Malaysians. The NPD docket consists of definite doctrines, aims and purposes, focal point, plans and execution schemes. The chief subject alterations with clip. They are flexible to accommodate the latest domestic and planetary challenges.

    Malaysia has gone thru ten Five Year National Development Plans from the First Malayan Plan ( 1956 – 1960 ) to the Eight Malaysian Plan ( 2001-2005 ) refer to page 202.

    This program can be divided into 4 chief stages of development:

    1. Planing prior to the New Economic Policy ( NEP )
    2. Outline Prospective Plan 1 ( OPP1 )
    3. Outline Prospective Plan 2 ( OPP2 )
    4. Outline Prospective Plan 3 ( OPP3 )

    These long term phases cover several five twelvemonth development programs. Every stage had its ain policies which are followed through by execution schemes to guarantee the attainment of aims. The ultimate aims for all are the same – to make national integrity through socio-economic development.


    The 2 chief aims of NEP was to cut down and eliminate poorness regardless of cultural background and reconstitute the society so as to extinguish community designation through economic sectors.

    The followers are some of the schemes to eliminate poorness

    1. overhaul the life conditions of the lower income group, both in the urban and rural countries by increasing – BASIC installations and instruction such as book aid and scholarship.
    2. Expand employment chances for all Malayan citizens irrespective of race
    3. Promote engagement in sectors of high potency and high productiveness such as concern, industries and services
    4. Better further the productiveness of the hapless, thereby increasing their income.

    Vision 2020

    To authorise citizens to transform Malaysia into a developed state. The targeted developed state criterion is one patterned upon the diverseness of races, faith, historical and cultural background, imposts and eastern values. The developed nature is holistic in nature, non from the economic system facet merely, but includes the wellbeing of the society. . It is hoped that in the developed state, around 12 old ages from now, Malayan society will hold a strong moral and ethical values and live in an environment that is democratic, broad and tolerant, lovingness, carnival in economic distribution, progressive and comfortable and be in full control of an economic system. The govt has put a clip frame of 30 old ages from the clip of its origin to recognize Vision 2020.

    The Sixth and Seventh Malaysian programs are considered the gateway and the first 10 old ages of Vision 2020.

    Nine challenges of Vision 2020:

    1. make a Malayan state that is united and with a common aim
    2. make a society that is free, peaceable and advanced, confident in its ain capablenesss, successfully proud and strong in confronting jobs
    3. create and develop a democratic society that is matured and practises a shared doctrine
    4. make a moral and ethical society with strong spiritual and religious values
    5. make a society that is tolerant and broad and free to pattern its ain imposts, civilization and faiths
    6. make a scientific and progressive society that is frontward looking and far-sighted and is therefore able to lend to bettering civilisation based on scientific discipline and engineering.
    7. Make a lovingness society and pattern a lovingness civilization
    8. Make a society that is just in the distribution of national wealth regardless of race
    9. Make a comfortable society with a competitory economic system.


    Independence was the point of going for supplying attention and protection to the people through planning and developing Malaysia harmonizing to the local environment, economically, socially, scientifically and technologically.

    The drafting and nidation of policies was adapted to current socio-economic values and policies in the state. Development policies were implemented to full-fill socio-economic demands such as, economic growing, income distribution and public assistance

    To develop the state, Malayan must be supportive and there must be efficient and effectual execution, The state ‘s chief policies are broken into 3 categories-

  • Economy-based policy
  • Society
  • Science and engineering

A ) Economy based policy are broken down into 5 smaller subdivisions. There are: –

  1. National Agriculture Policy
  2. National Incorporation Policy
  3. National Denationalization Policy
  4. National Development Policy and
  5. National Industrialization Policy

B ) Socially basal policies are broken down into 4 subdivisions. There are: –

  1. National Intergration Policy
  2. National Cultural Policy
  3. The policy of Applying Islamic Values in the Administration
  4. National Women ‘s Policy

C ) Era of Science and Technology – 1 subdivision

1 ) National Science and Technology Policy

Education Reforms: AIMS AND POLICIES

3 subdivisions:

  1. National Education policy
  2. Education Reforms
  3. Smart School.


Malaysia plays an of import function in set uping cooperation in assorted waies through active engagement in diverse country like trade, environment and societal development. Neckties of integrity with Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Brunie and Malaysia through the Association of Asiatic Nations ( ASEAN ) are of import for constructing up strong web among these states.

ASEAN is the Administration of South East Asiatic states ( Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore ) , set up following the Bangkok Declaration of 8th August, 1967.

Brunie joined ASEAN on 7th Jan 1984.

Cambodia became the seventh ASEAN member in March 1999, followed by Vietnam, Myamar and Loas.

Entire ASEAN members are 10 wholly.

ASEAN was set up because: –

  1. failure to construct up a comprehensive, sustained, and incorporate regional and international strength through the South Asia Organisation ( ASA ) that was established on 31July 1961 with lone Malaysia and Philippines as members.
  2. The failure of MAPHILINDO, established in Aug 1963 with lone Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines as members.

ASEAN contributes towards economic, societal and political development through assorted programmes such as: –

  • The Kuala Lumpur Declaration ( 1971 ) . This declaration was ractified for the announcement of the South East Asia part as a zone that is impersonal, peaceable and free from all signifiers of foreign intervention. This announcement was known as ZOPAN ( Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality )
  • ASEAN besides had understandings with the European Economic Union ( EEC ) , the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Japan.
  • In the 2nd ASEAN Heads of State conference ( 1977 ) , Japan, Australia and New Zealand agreed to lend towards ASEAN development.

Refer to postpone 13.1 for sum-up of ASEAN aims ( page 249 )


A ) Commonwealth Organisation – is an organisation of former, independent British settlements. Today there are 49 members. Malaysia uses the commonwealth as a span for take parting in assorted socio-economic and political activities. Malaysia is the Commonwealth Sectariat for pulling up proficient cooperation programmes such as engineering, agricultural preparation, environment and remote detection ( rural country )

B ) South-South Cooperation – is a strategic programme for beef uping friendly ties among members of the Movement of Non-aligned Countries or “ Non-Alligned Motion ” ( NAM ) specifically in: –

  • protection of trade
  • banking and finance
  • monetary value repair
  • industries
  • information exchange
  • investing and proficient cooperation

Members consisting states from Tanzania, India, Egypt, Brazil, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, West Samoa, Argentina, Uruguay, Zimbabwe, Jamaica, the Philippines, Mexico, Nigeria, Ivory seashore, Yugoslavia, Venezuela, China, Guyana, Cuba, Pakistan, Senegal, Indonesia, Algeria, and Malaysia.


Was apparatus in May 1971 to heighten and set up the glorification of Islam. It is to hammer closer ties with other Muslim states in the universe. A sum of 43 states are members of OIC.

International Fight Against Drug

Malayan and the ASEAN states have combined their strength to contend drug maltreatment since 1976. Assorted attempts are implemented to eliminate this activity both nationally and internationally.

United Nations Organization

UN was created to convey about integrity and stableness through audience and treatment programmes among states that are in understanding with the constitutional rules of Malaysia. Malaysia strongly supports the doctrine, nonsubjective and programmes of UN

Cooperation through the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation ( UNESCO )

UNESCO, whose central office is in Paris was set up on Nov 4th 1946. UNESCO activites are focused on the continent of Africa and Latin America since the demands and demands of the people there are more pressing because of retardation and poorness. UNESCO rank stands at 161 states.


Quality environment contributes to the attempts at raising productiveness and economic growing in the short and long tally. Assorted national and international programmes such as the United Nations conference for the Environment and Development are implemented to get the better of environmental pollution and to reconstruct natural resources.

The Principle of Environmental Protection and Conservation

Malaysia is undertaking assorted environmental jobs. The govn has outlined several rules:

  1. protection of the environment
  2. preservation of dirt birthrate and environmental quality
  3. sustained betterment in criterion and quality of wellness and safety
  4. emphasis on the integrating of assorted facets to make environmental quality
  5. committedness and answerability towards quality of environment
  6. find the suitableness and effectivity of utilizing natural resources
  7. active engagement at the international degree.

Read up table 14.1 and 14.2, page 259-262. Environmental Protection and Conservation Management

Inculcating consciousness among official organic structures and the people are of import so that the protection and preservation of the environment is sustained. These can be done through

  1. instruction and preparation programmes
  2. non-governmental organisation programmes such as “ love our rivers ” , “ tree planting run ” , “ clean and beautiful run ” , “ haze consciousness ”
  3. International and Regional Agreement – involves schemes for the international society to set environment and development together.

Malaya is involved in the

  1. Model of Climatic Change Convention – FCCC. and
  2. The Basel Convention – on disposal of unsafe and toxic waste across boundaries


Particular Governmental Human Development Programmes are organized through the Ministry of Youth, Ministry of National Unity and Social Development and the Human Resource Ministry. These ministries are to heighten human development and to make a defence to contend against negative societal ailments.

Table 15.1, page 271, outlines the attempts of the state by the Ministry of Youth and Sports through nucleus programmes and premier Agenda, national societal service and the action program of the young person council.

The authorities placed particular accent on the societal service to heighten the quality of life and wellbeing of the people so that the people would be more productive and have positive values of life. Positive life values were encouraged among the people to construct a strong and progressive society

Competitiveness and self-control – includes

Moral Strength: –

A competitory citizen is one who is ever transporting out activities directed at quality development and who is respected, applauded and looked upon as a function theoretical account by other states.

Table 15.4, page 274, discuss the factors to beef up moral for developing fight and self control and the points are

  1. stableness in life
  2. economic development for wellbeing
  3. overcome societal ailments
  4. productiveness
  5. political stableness
  6. understanding and integrated integrity
  7. alteration harmonizing to demands and clip
  8. cognition civilization
  9. quality civilization
  10. wellness civilization.

Continuous Peace and Harmony must hold factors as

  1. balanced basic qualities
  2. strong character
  3. expert
  4. understand history
  5. coevals that is stouthearted and determined.

High Self-Respect

The behavioral values that can build-up high ego regard are just, assurance, honest, ever bettering work criterions, dynamic, weather, protect and value local traditional civilization and patriotic.


Development of World Standard Knowledge as in Multimedia Corridor and MSC – Universal Standard IT

To contend against Drug Abuse and Control of Spread of HIV/AIDS, can be done through

  1. control through faith and
  2. counsel and guidance

Family – the authorities has introduced programmes in respects to household development such as household wellness, parentage, kid protection, reding service, national senior citizen policy, building of residential topographic points for the hapless and other programmes

Vision 2020 challenges for young persons of the future – as a starting point for immature people to develop themselves and society for excellence compatibility to universe criterions. Young people should lend towards constructing a state that is united through the values of peace and prosperity, integrating, racial integrity and justness.