List Of Figures And Tables Engineering Essay

List Of Figures And Tables Engineering Essay

Photovoltaic, the carbon-free engineering that converts sunlight straight into electricity, has grown dramatically in recent old ages. Unique among the renewable energies in its interaction with the built environment, PV is going portion of the day-to-day experience of citizens in developed states as 1000000s of PV faculties are installed on rooftops and edifice frontages. However, the end product feature of solar cell is highly sensitive to shadowing. Shadowing of PV system can do high loss in the public presentation. If shading is non taken into history, the end product power is usual badly less than expected. Shadowing at PV system can do high loss in public presentation because of the irradiance which is reduced by shadowing. In this undertaking, effects of partial shadowing on the public presentation of features of PVA systems will be discussed and compared in elaborate utilizing Matlab. MPPT will be researched on this undertaking every bit good.


List of Figures and Tables

Chapter 1 Introduction

Over the last old ages, the solar photovoltaic has been increasing dramatically and it will be confirmed to detect this tendency in the coming old ages. Peoples populating in sunshine states will progressively have their electricity from big PV power workss and live in solar houses. PV is already assisting us towards a solar future.This undertaking is chiefly concerned with the effects of partial shadowing on the public presentation of features of PVA systems by utilizing Matlab. In this chapter, section1.1 and section1.2 will give a brief debut of Sunlight & A ; Shading, Maximum Power Point Tracking, severally. The purpose is presented in section1.3.

1.1 Sunlight & A ; Shadowing

Photovoltaic ( PV ) is a method of bring forthing electrical power by change overing solar radiation into direct current electricity utilizing semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic consequence. Photovoltaic normally use the engineering which straight convert the sunshine into the electricity.

The Sun provides an about impossible sum of energy needed to prolong life in the solar system. The Earth receives adequate energy from the Sun in order to run into its energy demands for about a twelvemonth. As the sunshine enters the ambiance of the Earth, some is absorbed, some is scattered, and some base on ballss through unaffected by the molecules in the ambiance and is either absorbed or reflected by objects at land degree. Direct sunshine consists of parallel beams, which are necessary if the visible radiation is to be focused. Scattered visible radiation is chiefly responsible for the light come ining north facing Windowss when the Sun is in the North. Generally speech production, the sunshine consists of three constituents, direct radiation, and diffuses radiation and reflects radiation severally. Sunlight which reaches the surface of the Earth without sprinkling is called direct radiation. Scattered sunshine is called diffuse radiation. Sunlight that is reflected from the land is called reflected radiation. The amount of all of the three constituents is called planetary constituent [ 1 ] .

The solar has a big figure of applied signifiers, it has been widely used in many topographic points, chiefly applied for big photovoltaic power Stationss on the land and rooftops of the residential and commercial edifices, PV Street visible radiation, and so on. However, in these topographic points, shadowing may happen necessarily. As complexness of construction and possible application countries of photovoltaic ( PV ) coevals systems ( for illustration PV roof systems, PV curtain wall systems ) , particularly sing partial shading phenomenon, there are great impacts on the end product features of PV arrays which means solar cell electrical end product is highly sensitive to shadowing. Because of the internal ‘short-circuiting ‘ , the end product reduces dramatically, when even a little part of a cell, array, or panel is shaded, while the balance is in sunshine. Shadowing can greatly cut down the end product of the PV faculties, and in terrible instances it runs the hazard of hot topographic point formation. Two chief grounds cause the shading. One is called “ occasional shadows ” which is caused by bird dungs, dust beds, or snow on the PV faculties. This state of affairs can be evidently reduced by proper care and cleansing. Another 1 is called “ repeating shadows ” , due to local characteristics, are more awkward. The grade of shadowing at different times of the twelvemonth depends upon the flight of the Sun. A freshly designed PV system should ever take particular attention to avoid them. When shadowing is ineluctable it may be possible to cut down its effects by careful planning of faculty interconnectednesss in the PV arrays [ 2 ] .

1.2 Maximal Power Point Tracking

Maximal power point trackingA ( MPPT ) is a technique thatA grid-tie inverters, solar battery coursers and similar devices use to acquire the upper limit possible power from one or more photovoltaic devices, typicallyA solar panels, [ 1 ] A though optical power transmittal systems can profit from similar engineering.

The MPPT ( Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system is able to end product more power for the electrical system by seting the operating province of the electrical faculty. It can hive away the DC which is produced by the solar panels in the battery efficaciously without environmental pollution. What ‘s more, MPPT is an effectual manner to work out the job of life and industrial electricity in distant countries and tourer countries where the grid could non cover.

The public presentation of the PV faculty can utilize V-I curve to stand for. The instantaneous end product power of the solar faculty ( V* I ) will travel in this V-I curve. The end product of the PV faculty is capable to the influence of the external circuit. Maximal Power Point Tracking engineering usage power electronic devices with the appropriate package in order to maintain the end product power of PV faculty at the maximal value. The end product power of solar faculty will non be able to accomplish the optimum ( maximal ) value in any instance without the maximal power point tracking engineering, so that the use of PV faculty will be reduced.

1.3 Aim of undertaking

The undertaking is named Effectss of partial shadowing on the public presentation of features of PVA systems. During this undertaking, Matlab will be used to discourse and compare in elaborate. This undertaking is aimed to concern about the consequence of different shadings on PV system and comparison with mensural consequences to do recommendations based on the decision obtained. In add-on, the Maximum Power Point Tracking ( MPPT ) will be discussed in this undertaking.

Chapter 2 Literature reappraisal

The cardinal portion of this chapter is the literature reappraisal which is to give a critical assessment of the most of import work that has been published in this topic. It is hence necessary to cipher the irradiance and shadowing country of different state of affairss. This chapter will explicate and reexamine some of import parts of shadowing in PV system. In the subdivision 2.1, the basic theory and reappraisal of solar cell will be demonstrated. In the interim, the reappraisal which include the consequence of shadowing on PV system and MPPT will be severally, shown in the subdivision 2.2 and 2.3. In the subdivision 2.4, a series of equations and computation of three constituents of solar radiation and shadowing country which both are on the footing of the twenty-four hours 28th Sep, 2011 will be shown.

2.1 Characteristic of Solar cell

How to change over solar energy into electrical energy is the first job of Photovoltaic application in a several stuffs. Solar cell which converts the solar radiation into electricity is based on the semiconducting material photovoltaic consequence. Photovoltaic faculty comprises several solar cells, and so the PV array which has a certain power compose of several PV faculties harmonizing to the demand. PV array constitutes a photovoltaic power coevals system with energy storage, measuring, and control device.

Three basic stairss which solar cell plants in [ 16 ] :

Photons which are in light are absorbed by semiconducting stuffs and hit the solar panel, such as Si.

Electrons ( negatively charged ) which are knocked free from their atoms, leting them to flux through the stuff to bring forth electricity. The negatrons are merely allowed to travel in a individual way due to the particular composing of solar cells.

An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a useable sum of direct current ( DC ) electricity [ 17 ] .

The ideal Photovoltaic Cell

The possible difference develops between the solar cell ‘s terminuss when a burden is present. A current generated by this possible difference which behaves in the opposite way to the photocurrent every bit good as its short circuit value cut down the net current. This rearward current is named the dark current as usual in analogy with the current ( V ) which flows through the device under an applied electromotive force, or prejudice, electromotive force in the dark. A batch of photovoltaic cells act like a rectifying tube in the dark which is acknowledging a much smaller current under contrary prejudice ( V & lt ; 0 ) than under forward prejudice ( V & gt ; 0 ) . Since accomplishing charge separation needs to an asymmetric junction, this rectifying behaviour is one of characteristics of photovoltaic devices. The dark current denseness ( V ) for an ideal rectifying tube varies like: [ 18 ]

( 2.1 )

Where Jo is a changeless, is Boltzmann ‘s invariable ; T is temperature in grades Kelvin every bit good.

The solar cell ‘s response of overall current electromotive force and feature of its IV could be the amount of the short circuit photocurrent and the dark current about ( Figure.2.1.1 ) . This measure is called as the superposition estimate. Though the contrary current that flows in response to voltage in an lighted cell is non officially equal to the current which flows in the dark, the estimate which will be used for the present treatment is sensible for a batch of photovoltaic stuffs. The mark convention in photovoltaic for electromotive force and current is such that the photocurrent is positive. The usual convention is the antonym of the mark convention for electronic devices. The net current denseness in the cell with the mark convention is giving as followers:

( 2.2 )

For the ideal rectifying tube, that becomes

( 2.3 )

The possible difference has its maximal value, the unfastened circuit electromotive force when the contacts are isolated. The unfastened circuit electromotive force is tantamount to the status when short circuit photocurrent every bit good as the dark current precisely cancels out. Equation 2.3 is present for the ideal rectifying tube:

( 2.4 )

Equation 2.4 illustrates that the unfastened circuit electromotive force with light strength climbs logarithmically. Note that V is defined in order to the exposure electromotive force occurs in forwards prejudice.

Figure 2..1: feature of IV [ 18 ]

Figure 2.1. : Equivalent circuit of ideal solar cell [ 18 ]

Electrically, the solar cell is tantamount to a current generator in analogue with an asymmetric, non-linear resistive component, i.e. , a rectifying tube ( Figure.2.1.2 ) . A photocurrent which is relative to the light strength is produced by the ideal cell, when illuminated. That photocurrent is divided between the rectifying tube and the variable opposition of the burden, in a ratio that depends on the burden and the opposition of the degree of light. For higher oppositions, more of the photocurrent flows across the rectifying tube which is ensuing in a smaller current though the burden but a higher possible difference between the cell terminuss. Thus the exposure electromotive force is provided with a rectifying tube. There is nil to drive the photocurrent through the burden without the rectifying tube [ 18 ]

2.2 Shadowing on PV faculty and MPPT

2.2.1 Shadowing on PV faculty

The decrease of end product power and end product current with PV faculty can be attributed to a few factors, such as partial shading, uneven distribution of the irradiance or mismatch of individual solar cell etc. [ 3, 4 ]

Mathematic mold of consecutive PV faculty with partial shading

The two rectifying tubes theoretical account is widely used for an tantamount circuit. Harmonizing to the theoretical account of tantamount circuit shown in Fig1.4.1:

Figure 1.4.1: tantamount circuit for solar cell

The end product electromotive force V and current I [ 5 ] :

Where, ,





Where, is photo current solar PV faculty, and are, severally, irradiance co-efficient and temperature co-efficient, G is insolation degree ( at mention status G=1000w/m2 ) , is the country of solar cell, T and are Temperature ( Kelvin ) and mention Temperature severally, Q is the Electron charge which is equal to, K is Boltzmann ‘ invariable which is equal to a and N are both the invariable, is the breakdown electromotive force, is the parallel opposition and Rs is the series opposition [ 6 ] .

Harmonizing to the Kirchhoff Torahs and Newton ‘s method, the mathematical equation which is showing the end product current and electromotive force is given by below [ 7 ] :

The solar cells which are non shaded and the shaded solar cells are connected in series in the PV faculty, therefore, the end product current and end product electromotive force can be shown as below:



where, m is the figure of cells under shaded light, Iph1 is the exposure current which is under the common sunstroke, Iph2 is the photo current of the shaded solar cells. Then, the sunstroke G ‘ of shaded status is represented as [ 8 ] :

Where, and, severally, are the portion of unshaded solar cells and shadowing solar cells, and are the sunstroke which is full light and the shaded sunstroke.

The end product features of consecutive faculty with partial shading

This mold is based on the PV panel which consists of 19 solar cells that is connected in series. The experiment is under the standard trial status ( AM 1.5, Irradiance 1000W/ , temperature 25 ) . The parametric quantities of individual cell are listed below:

Specification of cell /cm





Table 1.4.1: Parameters of individual cell

The end product features of solar cell with partial shading are presented Figure 1.4.2. This figure shows that the features of power- electromotive force and current-voltage under different irradiances.

The irradiance and shading, severally, are listed:


Shadowing country


Shadowing country


no shading


6 shading


20 shading


80 shading


40 shading


Full shading

Table 1.4.2: irradiance and shading

From Figure 1.4.2, the unfastened circuit electromotive force decreases easy while the short circuit current beads aggressively from 1.45A to 0.017A. The maximal end product power decreases dramatically from 10.19W to 0.07W.

Figure 1.4.2 I-V and P-V features of consecutive faculty at different faculty [ 9 ]

The unfastened circuit electromotive force, short circuit current and maximal end product power severally bead by 3.1, 39.5, 40, when the consecutive faculty is from unshaded to 40 shaded. When the cell is shaded, the end product current of shaded cell will drop which lead to the decrease of the end product current and power in the whole faculty.

2.2.2 MPPT of PV system

2.3 Solar radiation on the surface

Harmonizing to the [ 10 ] , the planetary irradiance consists of three constituent, direct irradiance, and spread irradiance and reflects irradiance. On the horizontal surface, the planetary irradiance can be calculated as:

Where, G is planetary irradiance, I is direct irradiance, D Idaho diffuse irradiance, R is reflect irradiance, which is on the footing of experimental surveies of Liu and Jordan ( 1982 ) [ 11 ] or Erbs, Klein and Duffie ( 1960 ) [ 12 ] .

However, the PV system is non normally on the horizontal surface but on the atilt surface. It is different between computation on the horizontal surface and atilt surface. In order to cipher the irradiance on the tiled roof, sun attitude ( ) and sun AZ ( ) are proposed for this computation. Both of two angles are calculated from the longitude, latitude, day of the month and clip of the location which is chosen. One of the method is modified DIN 5034 ( 1985 ) [ 13 ] , another is described in SUNAE algorithm of Walraven ( 1978 ) [ 14 ] .

The angle of incidence is rather utile to cipher the direct irradiance on the atilt surface, it can be found from the equation:

therefore, the direct irradiance is determined as:

Where is direct irradiance on the atilt surface, I is horizontal direct irradiance.

The reflect irradiance can be calculated by the planetary irradiance on the horizontal surface and the incline angle of the atilt surface. The method for ciphering the diffuse irradiance has been proposed by Klucher ( 1979 ) [ 15 ] .

Chapter 3 Decision of literature reappraisal

The literature reappraisal which is mentioned on the shading of photovoltaic has been carried out from both the individual solar cell and solar faculty in order to properly place the research being undertaken as portion of this undertaking. The literature hunt on the capable subject can assist one better cognize the usual operation of solar cell and negative consequence of solar sell or solar faculty caused by shadowing. One of the important decision of this work is that the shading which comes from the tree surrounding, the bird dropping, the clouds etc. will leads to the decrease of end product power in the solar cell, PV faculty or PV system, in the interim, the solar cell or faculty may be damaged by the “ hot topographic point “ formation [ 3 ] .

The critical assessment of bing work has besides shown that most shadowing related research activities have concentrated on the shadow in PV faculty or individual cell but documents which propose to the shading in the full PV system and how the irradiance comes from every bit good as how to cipher the irradiance are less than the shadow in PV faculty. It is true that some documents have consisted of the computation about shadowing country and the irradiance in the whole PV system but this work is preliminary and without experimental confirmation every bit good as deficiency of the grounds of the cryptography which the package particularly for utilizing Matlab.

In this undertaking, the spread will be surely filled by utilizing the codification in Matlab to demo that how to pattern the shadowing country in the PV system and cipher the irradiance by utilizing Matlab. The experimental consequences which are presented in following chapters doubtless illustrate that the solar attitude and AZ are of import factors which affect the shading country and the irradiance. Besides, the day of the month of the twelvemonth is a necessary factor of computation. Besides, it is obvious that some documents mention the shadowing country computation normally focus on the plane PV system but non on the tilted PV system. This undertaking will chiefly take the StBC 3KW PV system as an illustration to research on the modeling about the shading country and irradiance by utilizing the Matlab in order to do a comparing and decision on different state of affairss.