Supination Pronation Movement Of Transradial Prosthesis User Engineering Essay

Supination Pronation Movement Of Transradial Prosthesis User Engineering Essay

Prosthetic is a word comes from Greek, “ prostithenai ” significance to add to, or to set in add-on. [ 1 ] In medical field, prosthetics is using as the cognition to plan an unreal device with the intent to replace the losing organ or organic structure section such as limbs, eyes, bosom valve and etcetera. In this survey, upper limb prosthetic device will be focus on and the specific type of it which is transradial prosthetic device. Transradial is a term depicting degree of amputation which equivalent as below elbow amputation along with the categorization of long, medium or short.

Supination and pronation is a sort of human anatomical gestures where radius is go arounding around the ulna bone. In precise, supination is the rotary motion of the forearm so that the thenar faces anteriorly, or thenar confronting up and pronation is a rotary motion of the forearm that moves the thenar from an anterior-facing place to a posterior-facing place, or thenar confronting down.

Figure 1: Supination and Pronation

From the statistic value shown in researches, transradial types of amputee is the major population compared to other types of amputation degree. [ 2 ] Furthermore, research workers found that rather a figure of amputees reported the low erosion period on prosthetic device with the dissatisfaction in footings of low functional in community and ADLs, decorative visual aspect and the uncomfortableness of harness. [ 3 ] Supination and pronation are the frequent used gesture in our day-to-day life and therefore the rating towards these gestures in transradial prosthetic device design is necessary to be transporting out for better betterment. Combination of the statements mentioned, has adequately clarified the importance of this survey.

In development of transradial prosthetic devices, different types of merchandises have been designed, from the earliest cosmesis prosthetic device to organic structure powered and electrical powered prosthetic device presents. These prosthetic merchandises work in different mechanism and may accommodate for specific amputee ‘s use.

The decorative prosthetic device is besides known as inactive prosthetic device is the oldest paradigm, with the first devising as an unreal manus made from Marcus Sergius in the Punic War ( 218-201 BC ) . [ 4 ] This device is made by skilled armorers and emerged as a gauntleted manus, or armoured baseball mitt. Although the representation of human manus is bing, the inactive device causes the absence in the motion of manus and thereby promotes the uncomfortable feelings of the prosthetic device user.

The body-powered prosthetic device was invented by a Berlin tooth doctor, Peter Baliff in 1812 which was operated by attaching the straps to the bole of amputee ‘s organic structure. [ 4 ] The current devices are modified by rounding the straps over the amputee ‘s dorsum and shoulders. It is a functional prosthetic device which operated utilizing overseas telegram and harness system that require the motion of amputee ‘s organic structure, such as move the shoulders or arm in order to draw the overseas telegram and do the terminal device to open or shut.

This body-powered terminal device is categorized into voluntary-open and voluntary-close. Voluntary-open means that users must open the terminal device by using force through overseas telegram system. Then it will shut on its ain with the aid of gum elastic sets which will restrict the clasp strength of device applied to the gum elastic set. The gum elastic bands do the work of shuting one time an object is grasped, so the organic structure is out of feedback cringle.

On the other manus, the voluntary-close agencies that the users can shut the terminal device alternatively of unfastened it by using force. The clasp strength depends on the individual ‘s strength who utilizing it. It provide the tenseness feedback to the organic structure which similar to utilize the bike handbrakes. Therefore, the user can command the clasp by using the force needed since they can experience the force applied.

In short, the body-powered prosthetic devices allow for greater scope of gesture of the elbow flexure and necessitate more shoulder flexure to complete activity of day-to-day life ( ADL ) . The advantages of this device are lower initial cost, lighter weight, easier to mend and offer better tenseness feedback to the organic structure. While the disadvantages are mechanical visual aspect and it is hard to utilize for some people due to single ‘s physical ability.

The electrical powered prosthetic device is functioned by little electric motor which is normally powered by rechargeable battery beginning. There are different types of control for electrical powered prosthetic device, such as myoelectric control an 500 switch control. Switch over control prosthetic device operates the prosthetic device motor or actuator by utilizing a little switch button. The button may turn up inside the socket or suspension. To bring forth wrist motion such as pronation and supination, the user activates the switch button and the electrical motor is turned on to execute related motion.

The myoelectric control is the most common control system used today. In 1948, the first myoelectric prosthetic device was invented by Reihold Reiner. [ 4 ] This prosthetic device is controlled by electromypgraphic ( EMG ) activity where the musculus cell membrane undergone depolarisation and repolarisation activity. In order to bring forth supination and pronation motion, the user performs certain degree of manus musculus contraction. The EMG signal is transmitted from surface electrodes ( detector ) which are placed on user ‘s tegument to the microprocessor where the standard signal is being processed. The actuator or motor is so turned on and eventually the prosthetic device is executing supination and pronation motion in certain grade of gesture. By innovation of myoelectric prosthetic device, user ‘s functional scope of gesture is increased and minimum energy outgo is required. However, the cost and weight of prosthetic device is an issue.

Figure2: Myoeletric prosthetic device [ 5 ] Figure 3: Components of myoelectric prosthetic device arm [ 5 ]

The intercrossed prosthetic device is the design which multiple control schemes are used. Normally it combines organic structure power and electrical power system in a individual prosthetic device. Unlike other prosthetic device which has consecutive control, intercrossed prosthetic device could execute more than one map at the same time. For illustration, the user can open and close manus while executing supination and pronation. The other advantages of intercrossed prosthetic device are the lighter weight distribution and less expensive compared to electrical powered prosthetic device.

Figure 3: Hybrid prosthetic device with cable-operated and myoelectric power ; Golf prosthetic device [ 6 ]

Adaptive prosthetic device is specially designed for user to execute specific undertaking efficaciously and get the better of the restriction map of conventional prosthetic device in the activity. It can be body power, electrical power or intercrossed power. It is normally designed for recreational activity such as golfing and work related undertaking. Due to this ground, adaptative prosthetic device may non accommodate for conventional usage as it may curtail motion in other activities.

Methodology

First of wholly, an overview of the transradial prosthetic device was carried out. Background survey is necessary in this survey and focal point in the field of upper limb anatomical articulations which related to the supination and pronation motion. From the survey, it is required to research the cognition all about the functionality and gesture of transradial prosthetic device. Then, every bit many as articles which related to the “ Transradial Prosthesis ” , “ Pronation and Supination motion ” and “ Activity of Daily Living ” were searched.

Three common databases were used to seek for the related diary articles ; there are Science Direct, IEEE and Web of Science. Common keywords ( ex: “ Transradial Prosthesis ” , “ Upper Limb Prostheses ” AND “ pronation and supination ” and “ activities of day-to-day life ( ADL ) ” ) were inserted into the progress seeking window. Thereafter, research rubric which is lucifer with the keyword typed displayed as the consequences. Unrelated diaries were filtered by reading the abstracts and rubrics meanwhile suited and interconnected diaries are selected. By referred to associate diaries ‘ mentions, some helpful diaries and publish paper were taking as the consequence excessively.

Discussion made to finalize utile and related diaries for farther procedure. After doing concluding determination for the rubric, the specific range will be looked into in inside informations. Subsequently, comparing among the diaries will be discussed.

From the diary findings, it was found out that supination and pronation is an indispensable motion demand to be accomplished by transradial amputees in most of day-to-day life ‘s activities. Therefore, five ADLs ( opening a door, imbibing from a cup, turning a guidance wheel, eating with spoon, zipping a jacket, kayaking and hold oning object ) are selected and compared among different research surveies.

In the surveies, the compensatory motion was observed while capable is required to execute ADLs. The greater compensatory motion ( higher compensatory mark ) indicates the grade of freedom of prosthetic devices is non flexible or insufficient for the topic to execute undertakings. Therefore, the topic may use more attempt in order to transport out the ADLs. Therefore the user ‘s attempt in executing undertaking is being investigated as good. In the consequence tabular array, higher mark is given to the prosthetic device which requires low attempt from the user, which is besides inversed with the compensatory mark. Aside from that, functionality of the prosthetic device in executing undertaking is another of import facet. The prosthetic device which able to execute undertaking swimmingly associated with supination and pronation motion deserves higher mark in consequence of functional mark. There are diverse experiments and topics were used to look into the prosthetic device public presentation in ADLs. Hence the dependability of these research surveies besides affected, particularly, by the topics used in the experiment. In the probe of transradial prosthetic device public presentation, logically transradial amputee is the most precise topic to be observed and the consequence is most dependable. However simulation capable either from computing machine theoretical account or healthy topic of class gives lower dependability consequence to the research surveies because there are still some unsimilarity motion existed between the existent amputees and simulation topic.

Table1: Databases, Keywords used and Title Selected

Databases/ Search Engine

Keyword 1

Keyword2

Result Matched with Keywords

Title Selected

Web of Science

Transradial Prosthesis

Wrist Movement

4

Compensatory Movement of Transradial Prosthesis Users during Common Tasks [ 7 ]

Transradial Prosthesis

Daily Activities

5

Robot Kinematics Based Model to Predict Compensatory Motion of Transradial Prosthesis While Performing Bilateral Tasks. [ 1 ]

Kinematic Comparison of Myoelectric and Body-powered Prosthesis while Performing Common Activities [ 8 ]

Compensatory Movement of Transradial Prosthesis Users during Common Tasks [ 7 ]

IEEE

Transradial Prosthesis

Compensatory Motion

1

Robot Kinematics Based Model to Predict Compensatory Motion of Transradial Prosthesis While Performing Bilateral Tasks. [ 1 ]

Transradial Prosthesis

Supination and Pronation

No Result Shown

Science Direct

Transradial Prosthesis

Supination and Pronation

4

Compensatory Movement of Transradial Prosthesis Users during Common Tasks. [ 7 ]

Transradial Prosthesis

ADLs

7

Compensatory Movement of Transradial Prosthesis Users during Common Tasks [ 7 ]

Movement Features of Upper Extremity Prosthesis during Basic-Goal Directed Tasks [ 9 ]

Functional Evaluation of Natural Sensory Feedback Incorporated in A Hand Grasp Neuroprosthesis [ 10 ]

Google

Upper Extremity Prosthesis

ADLs

3

Optimal Fixed Wrist Alignment for Below-Elbow, Powered Prosthetic Hands [ 11 ]

Kinematic Evaluation of Terminal Devices for Kayaking with Upper Extremity Amputation [ 12 ]

Compensatory Movement of Transradial Prosthesis Users during Common Tasks [ 7 ]

Consequence:

Writer, Year

Merchandise

Scope

Motion

Patient test & A ; consequence

Effort/ Stress Score ( /10 )

Functional Mark

( /10 )

Technical Score ( /10 )

Compensatory Score ( /10 )

Doctor of optometry

District of columbia

TSW

Einsteinium

ZJ

Travel

K

Stephanie Lutton Carey et Al, 2009 [ 8 ]

Myoelectric

OD, DC

Bilateral transradial myoelectric amputees

9

8

Sodium

5

7

Body Power Prostheses

OD, DC

6

6

Sodium

9

6

Stephanie L. Carey et Al, 2008 [ 7 ]

Myoelectric

OD, DC, TSW

7 transradial myoelectric prostheses users

8

5

Sodium

7

7

7

Derek Lura et Al, 2009 [ 1 ]

Simulation Model of the Transradial Prosthesiss

TSW

Computer simulation prosthetic device theoretical account

8

9

Sodium

7

John S. Landry, 2000 [ 11 ]

Simulation Model of the Transradial Prosthesiss

DC, ES, ZJ

10 healthy topics simulate transradial amputees by have oning carpus splint

7

6

Sodium

8

8

8

Bouwsema, H. et Al, 2010 [ 9 ]

Myoelectric forearm prosthetic devices

Travel

8 transradial amputees

9

8

Sodium

8

M.J. Highsmith et Al, 2008 [ 12 ]

USF manus

K

Non-amputee expert kayakist

7

8

Sodium

7

A.Inmann, 2003 [ 10 ]

neuroprostheses

Einsteinium

Tetraplegic topic, neuroprosthesis user and able-bodied topics

7

6

Sodium

7

OD= Opening a Door DC= Drinking from a Cup TSW= Turning a Steering Wheel ES= Eating with a Spoon ZJ= Zip uping a Jacket

GO= Grasping Object K=Kayak

Discussion

Based on the diaries reading, the most frequent ADLs to be discussed is imbibing from a cup followed by eating with a spoon, opening a door and turning a guidance wheel every bit. The other ADLs such as hold oning an object and zipping a jacket besides have been discussed in minor articles. Furthermore, myoelectric prosthetic device is the most discussed merchandises out of diverse transradial prosthetic device. In everyday, prosthetic arm in executing ADLs is evidently limited from the reviewed diary articles. Therefore compensatory motion is needed to smoothen most of the ADLs gesture.

Normal individual grips a typical door boss with manus and rotates forearm in clockwise way ( supination ) to open a door. However for a organic structure power prosthetic user ( Stephanie Lutton Carey et Al, 2009 ) [ 8 ] , they required more add-on motion to finish the undertaking comparison to myoelectric prosthetic user. The compensatory motions required are glenohumeral joint flexure ( from scope of 24o to 88o ) and elbow joint flexure ( from scope of 26o to 81o ) . Meanwhile myoelectric prosthetic user utilizes 5o to 38o of glenohumeral joint flexure and 21o to 61o of cubitus articulation flexure which is about similar to the research worker ‘s old survey ( Stephanie Lutton Carey et Al, 2008 ) [ 7 ] , maximal GH flexure 44o and EL flexure 73o. Due to miss of the forearm and wrist motion, prosthetic user twists the door boss with aid of GH and EL articulations.

To imbibe from a cup, a normal individual appreciation and lifts up a cup following by leaning it horizontally to talk with 32o of wrist motion ( flexure ) and 13o of forearm rotary motion ( pronation ) . The simulation theoretical account of organic structure power prosthetic device ( John S. Landary, 2000 ) [ 11 ] shown 63o of GH flexure, 130.5o of EL flexure and -2.9o cervical spinal column ( CS ) backward flexing. On the other manus, the myoelectric prosthetic user ( Stephanie Lutton Carey et Al, 2008 ) [ 7 ] , merely spends 47o GH flexure and has greater EL flexure. In add-on, CS flexing way was in contrast with the former research due to the protocol difference. The topics in earlier survey were requested to empty H2O from the cup conversely with the later research which merely required topics tip the cup to talk.

In undertaking of turning maneuvering wheel, a normal individual is flexing and kidnaping shoulder in the average clip revolving the forearm, flexing carpus and EL to bring forth the rotary motion of the wheel. For myoelectric topic ( Stephanie Lutton Carey et Al, 2008 ) [ 7 ] , they demonstrate DoA of shoulder flexure in scope of 0o to – 0.05o, shoulder abduction in scope of 0o to 0.02o and EL flexure in scope of 0o to 0.25o. In a simulation survey ( Derek Lura et Al, 2009 ) [ 1 ] , DoC of forearm flexure is 84o and sidelong trunk flexure is in scope of 63o to 80o when the wheel is turned 90o from get downing place.

When feeding, a normal individual grasps the spoon followed by flexing EL articulation to take spoon towards oral cavity with some grade of carpus rotary motion ( supination ) . However the simulated organic structure power prosthetic topics ( John S. Landary, 2000 ) [ 11 ] need compensate with 42.6o of GH joint flexure and 119.5o of EL flexure. In add-on, eating undertaking with manus appreciations neuroprosthesis ( Andreas Inmann et.al, 2004 ) [ 10 ] which based on the functional electrical stimulation ( FES ) tend to use larger appreciation force utilizing the neuroprosthesis in closed-loop control ( CLC ) compared to open-loop control ( OLC ) . Information of tegument receptors are used to command the appreciation force automatically in the closed-loop system. The continuance of eating stage is about the same for both the control algorithm, but it takes twice of the clip compared to normal people. This is because normal people have larger dynamic scope and greater appreciation force compared to neuroprosthesis user. Whereas zipping a jacket needs 52.1o of GH flexure and 122.1o of EL flexure. This consequence reveals greater scope of compensatory gesture of prosthetic users during carry out the undertakings.

The grasping undertakings by the intercrossed upper arm prosthetic device and myoelectric forearm prosthetic device were inquired into inside informations. In the grasping undertakings, the topic required to make out the object which placed on a tabular array and continue with hold oning motion with their prosthetic manus ( Bouwsema, H. et Al, 2010 ) [ 9 ] . Significantly, the stretch and hold oning motion was unable to associate together as perform by the natural manus. By comparing, the intercrossed upper arm prosthetic devices required more clip to finish the motions. The motions were less smooth and demo a big spread during the stretch and hold oning gesture.

In kayak undertaking, topics use two different prosthetic devices to execute the motion which are TRS manus and USF manus ( Jason Highsmith, 2008 ) [ 12 ] . The TRS manus is commercial merchandise nevertheless USF manus is research prosthetic device. In comparing these two prosthetic device, the TRF manus consequence more consistent bole rotary motion but USF result assorted measure of bole rotary motion. For EL articulation, USF perform 22o gesture meanwhile TRS perform gesture in 29o. Therefore TRS manus is more flexible than the USF manus in perform kayak undertaking. Nevertheless, with the usage of TRS manus, the topic ‘s sound limb tends to work harder to keep the paddle place while kayaking.

From the surveies, it can be concluded that a commercial merchandise is more progress than reviewed research prosthetic devices. In the reviewed researches, the chief aim is to look into the manner of prosthetic device arm integrated with ADLs. Thus, the device selected in their survey is focus on the common used prosthetic merchandises which are low cost and merely supply basic motion.

Upper limb prosthetics innovation does non accomplish the mass users every bit effectual as the lower limb prosthetic device because most of the ADLs involve greater upper limb scope of gesture compared to lower limb, for illustration, feeding, imbibing from a cup, drive, unfastened door and etcetera. Wide scope of specification must be considered in order to plan a perfect upper limb prosthetic. For case, prosthetic device may execute good in imbibing from a cup but it failed to win opening a door. Furthermore, upper limb prosthetics do non execute motion in specific modus operandi compared to take down limb prosthetics which has repeated gait rhythm.

Decision:

As decision, myoelectric prosthetic has better public presentation while making ADLs than organic structure powered prosthetic device. However, the compensatory motion in both myoelectric and organic structure powered prosthetic device were still significantly brought the inconveniency to users for ADLs. Thus the upper limb prosthetics still have its potency for farther development and development to better amputee ‘s life quality.