The British Colonisation Of Kenya History Essay

The British Colonisation Of Kenya History Essay

The purpose of this coursework is to analyze and critically assess, to what extent the British colonization of Kenya have a positive impact on Kenyan history.A A As with much historical reading, the impact of British colonization on Kenya is capable to much debate.A A For many historiographers, colonialism has had a powerful and permanent impact on Africa.A A For case, Crawford Young believes the ”overall colonial bequest cast its shadows over the emergent African province system to a degree unique among the major universe parts. ” [ 1 ] A This means that Africa can neither be explained nor understood without first unknoting the continent ‘s colonial experience.A A Some historiographers like Adu Boahen preferred to follow a in-between class and province that ” [ 2 ] A in some respects the impact of colonialism was deep and was surely destined to impact the future class events, but in others, it was non. ”A [ 3 ] A Furthermore, Peter O Ndege elaborated in his talk that Kenyan ‘communities were extremely acephalous and segmented ‘ . Sherriff supports Ndege and to boot connotes that the communities in Kenya ‘for many centuries adjusted themselves to their ecological niches. ‘ [ 4 ] A This underpins the divisions present within communities inside of Kenya such as the ‘Agikuyu who adapted within the Highlandss developed their ain agricultural economic systems, whereas others including the Maasai and the Samburu from the dry and semi-arid countries practised pastoralist signifiers of production. ‘ [ 5 ] A Kenya is populated with different cultural groups including the Nilotes, Bantu, Cushites and Semites each allocated in their hereditary land, where they had their ain beliefs, traditional authorities, medical specialty men/ herb doctor and taught their kids to turn up to function as a loyal member in each of their communities.A A In 1885 after the Berlin Conference, British declared Uganda and Kenya as their ‘protectorates ‘ severally, the Kenyan community ‘traditional ‘ societal, political and economic construction was transformed and by the 1920s pre-colonial Kenya was a different society. Colonialists would reason they ‘blessed ‘ Kenya by ‘modernising ‘ it by giving it a boundary, a authorities, improved substructure, agribusiness and industrialisation.A Furthermore, it could be argued ‘that British colonization united what was basically a divided land, industrialised and modernised an agricultural people. ‘A [ 6 ] A However, Kenyan history refutes such averments and alternatively this history reveals that many of the jobs which occurred within the province by 1980s contradicted the positive ‘blessed ‘ impact in Kenya. Rather, the jobs Kenya experienced in the 1980s ‘serve to simply reenforce the position that British colonization, created an unreal district and randomly brought together over 40 antecedently independent communities into one territorial entity ‘ . [ 7 ] A Kenya was a semisynthetic state, fraught with the jobs built-in to British colonialism and imperialism within Africa. Therefore, throughout this essay I am traveling to measure to what extent British colonization in Kenya had a positive impact.

During, pre-colonial Kenya, the state was chiefly ‘a rural state except for a spot of urbanisation on the seashore chiefly from Arab bargainers ‘ [ 8 ] . The cultural groups that are now seen as urbanite in Kenya were populating in rural communities raising their cowss and caprine animals and a spot of cultivation.A A Conjointly, Kenya ‘s history of ‘inter-ethnic interactions were characterized by trade, exogamies, limited and intermittent warfare. ‘A [ 9 ] A This means that there was less interaction between the communities was done during that era apart from trade ( which at the clip was interchanging of goods. Furthermore, Pre-colonial Kenya ‘s economic, societal and political state of affairs can merely be explained jointly every bit good as individually harmonizing to each linguistic communication group because of the varied civilization versions. The folk in Kenya harmonizing to Arjen Koopman, like elsewhere in East Africa before 1885 were divided into three linguistic communication groups being the Bantus, Nilotes and Cushites. [ 10 ] A The Cushitic speech production peoples who included chiefly the Somali, Boni, Redille and Wata, moved into Kenya from North African district in 2000 BC and adapted to be hunterer-gatherers, but besides livestock Herders and husbandmans. Whereas the Bantu and Nilotic peoples, moved from West-Africa and included chiefly the Kikuyu, Mijikenda, Dawida, Taveta, Akamba as the Bantus and Masai, Luo, Kalenjin, Turkana as the Nilotes..A Furthermore the Bantus pre-colonially practised new engineerings such as Fe working and besides practised farming supplemented with herding, fishing, runing, garnering and merchandising their Fe merchandises whilst other folks chiefly limited themselves to runing and assemblage.

A Harmonizing to Walter Rodney, ‘every people have developed in one manner or another and to a greater or lesser extent. ‘ This means that he supports the fact that pre-colonial Kenya was efficient with itself in no demand for any signifier of assistance in order to develop it hence in this instance the British colonialist ‘s liability to construct Kenya was unneeded. [ 11 ]

The Anglo-German, Berlin confernceA A the company changed its name and was given the royal charter as Imperial British East Africa Company. At the same clip that the British Government started negotiations in 1890 with the Germans to clarif the boundaries. In the understanding signed after the negotiations, Germany recognised Uganda as portion of the British are of influence accepted a British associated state over Zanzibar and Pemba. The Imperialists used Kenya ‘s seashore to link to Asia, Uganda was reffered to the fertile land at the clip as they underestimated Kenya. Kenya was so used as a gateway to Asia, it was for this ground the Kenya-Uganda railroad was built. The tract land between the seashore and the associated state of Uganda was a barren for the British Government but it needed some legal protection and some disposal to guarantee easy conveyance to Uganda.

On 1stA July 1985 the are from the seashore strip ti the Rift vale was declared tthe British East Africa Protectorate. The imperial British East Africa Company had the load of maintaining the path unfastened. For this they had to hold managed garrisons along the path. Each of these would necessitate some 2,000 manloads a twelvemonth. It is no admiration that Mackinnon advocated from the really get downing the building of a railroad. He surveyed the land and construct a little path in Mombasa to lure concern and authorities functionaries to endorse his undertaking.

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Within the context of 1885-1985, to what extent did the British colonization of Kenya have a positive impact

Accordind to Ndege there is a direct nexus between Colonialism developed from imperialism and Capitalism. Ndege denotes that ‘Capitalism, imperialism and colonialism portion the definitions of poitical, cultural and economic development. ‘ This a chief ground A as to why the Berlin Conferece was held in 1884.It was at this point that thelaunching of Kenya ass portion of a British imperialist wealth commenced in 1885 during The Berlin Conference where an Anglo-German convention was held harmonizing to Ndege to ‘set the regulations which would find the inter-European boundary agreements. ‘ The Berlin conference played the function in favor of the European, building boundary lines around Africa giving ‘super power provinces ‘ the imperial authorization and ownership of the districts marked in an African map that would back up in the growing of their states. Furthermore an statement in favor of the conference would province that it would hold been the spread of substructure and growing of industrial development within Africa. Furthermore it would besides unify the linguistic communication groups bing into one corporate state, where they would be a ‘civilised ‘ working brotherhood under colonial regulation. Ndege disagrees and provinces that it was an understanding that made Kenya a semisynthetic state and created boundaries that were demarcated without the audience of Kenyan people. Furthermore, he argues that the colonial boundaries caused territorial entity and the pre-colonial province would happen it an overpowering undertaking to understand they are in a state. Ndege gives an illustration of the Plains Nilotes such as the Masai, who took the full colonial period to understand the perceptual experience of the colonial disposal. A instance survey that ratifies post-colonial Kenya in this territorial creative activity, is observed during the reign of Jommo Kenyatta whereby harmonizing to… .Kenyatta instantly swerved from extremist patriotism to conservative middle class whereA A he gave plantations once owned by white colonists to the favoured receivers being the Kikuyu husbandmans, along with their Alliess the Embu and Meru in a consequence of catching the state ‘s wealth and power in the custodies of an administration ( Gikuyu-Embu-Meru Associaton, GEMA ) which grouped these three folks consisting harmonizing to statics to be merely 30 % of the state ‘s population. In add-on, the Kikuyu, with Kenyatta support spread beyond their territorial fatherlands and repossessed lands ‘stolen by the Whites ‘ even when they had antecedently belong to other groups go forthing an indignant 70 % bulk and puting up long term cultural animuss. Jommo Kenyatta ‘s land distribution method illustrates the deficiency of Unity among the Kenyans after the independency and a born rhythm of inequality every bit good as cultural hierarchy introduced by the results of boundary set up which inquiries the positiveness of colonial substructure development.A

More earnestly the boundaries were responsible for divinding individual communities such as the Masai and Kuria, Somalia and Ethiopia, the Luo, besides among Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, and the Teso and Samia between Kenya and Uganda. The fact that the administrative and cultural boundaries were contiguous nurtured negative ethnicity competition as different communities competed for colonial resources.A A

Inter-ethnic competition would qualify the station 1945 patriot battles and station colonial political relations. Examples include efforts by the Kalenjin and coastal communities to set up quasi-federalism as a counterweight to Kikuyu-Luo domination in independent Kenya. Furthermore, the colonial boundaries would besides take to Somali, secessionist efforts by the Kenya Somali in their command to fall in their kith and family in neighboring Somali. The colonial province employed autocratic force to keep Kenya ‘s diverse communities together

Within the context of 1885-1985, to what extent did the British colonization of Kenya have a positive impact?

British colonization came with motivations of doing Kenya a agency of conveyance in order to develop the state ‘s communicating every bit good shorten the distances. During colonial Kenya, a Kenya-Uganda railroad was established. The railroad was built in order to metre a step the distance in the state and harmonizing to Victoria it was besides ‘a beginning of locomotor and turn overing stock ‘ . Furthermore it was a cardinal building that was supposed develop Kenya ‘s inside by associating Kenya and Ugandan associated states. It was at this epoch where 32,000 workers were imported from India to make the manual work. Consequently Victoria provinces that the railroad encouraged labors, whereby whether skilled or unskilled, workers were imported in from India, many of whom remained after their contracts ended to go the karyon of the Asian community in Kenya. This shows an outgrowth of a new foreign civilization migration to Kenya which would hold increased cultural diverseness station colonization. Furthermore, rapid economic development was indispensable and seen as necessary to do the railroad wage because African population was accustomed to subsistence instead than exported agribusiness and was argued by colonialists to be coarse for economical development. The colonial authorities hence encouraged the European colony in the fertile Highlands, which had been understood to hold smallA

A The inquiry of substantiability of railroad became the preoccupation of Sir Charkes Elliot, the British High Commision who thought Africans wouldnt be able to bring forth adequate goods to prolong operation of the line, so he encouraged white colonists whom he believed should be the 1s to command the trade along the railroad line. A As consequence of white colonists being introduced by the colonial authorities harmonizing to… .a figure of jobs fell under Kenyans as the white.A colonist ‘squattering ‘ was a monolithic land disaffection from Africans as they were pushed to militias which meant they would be room for racial segregation and forced labors in the European plantations put upon the Kenyans. A good illustration of a successful white colony that continued past colonialism inquiry Africans on whose land it was, in Wangari Mathai ‘s chapter on landholder ship, she addresses a good illustration of station colonial white colony being that of the instance of Lord Delamere of Britain who

was a major figure in the first three decennaries of British Rule in Kenya and controlled land purcheased from the Maasai for pittance, that extended over 100s of 1000s of estates in the Central Highlands and the Rift Vallley ( being the largest state in Kenya ) . Furthermore she states that, the same Delamere household remain after independency A and among Kenya ‘s largest landowners keeping 48,000 acre wildlife conservancy which affects the Kenya income as its chief foreign exchange towards the 1980s was Wildlife Tourism. Wangari returns by saying Since independency, the descendant of Lord Delamere have remained near to members of political elite, althought with Nijoya ‘s slaying, the instance has fascinated Kenyans and Europeans likewise, as it encapsulates the racial category and landownership. Harmonizing to Wangari Mathai, the Delamere household believe that the land and animate beings on it are their right-fully theirs, and tresspassers on their belongings, whether those trailing poachers or poaching themselves, hazard being shot. While the Delamares ain beef and dairy operationsA

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who shot to decease a Kenya Wildlife service game warden investigation suspected poaching and belongings.

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A Alienation of land supplanting of Africans from their ancestoral land if the footing of station colonial struggles experienced in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces. This is portion of historical unfairness that the state tries to turn to A even in the post-colonial epoch.

Railway in Kenya

One of the most important colonial developments that took topographic point in Kenya is the building of the Kenya Uganda railroad which started in 1895, running from the East Coast to Kisumu the West. It was completed by 1901. The British authorities had decided, chiefly for strategic grounds, to construct a railroad associating Mombasa with the British associated state of Uganda. A major effort of technology, the “ Uganda railroad ” ( that is the railroad inside Kenya taking to Uganda ) was completed in 1903 and was a decisive event in overhauling the country. As governor of Kenya, Sir Percy Girourd was instrumental in originating railway extension policy that led to building of the Nairobi-ThikaA A and Konza-Magadi railroads.

Some 32,000 workers were imported from The British India to make the manual labor. Many stay, as did most of the Indian bargainers and little business communities who saw chance in the gap of the inside of Kenya. Rapid economic development was seen unneeded to do the railroad wage, and since the African population was accustomed to subsistence instead than export agribusiness, the authorities decided to promote interior, non merely to the European husbandmans, missionaries, and decision makers, but besides to systematic authorities plans to assail bondage, witchery, disease and dearth. The Africans saw witchery as a powerful influence on their luives and often took violent action against suspected enchantresss. To command this aggression

Within the context of 1885-1985, to what extent did the British colonization of Kenya have a positive impact?

A

Colonial military expeditions led to genocide and forced migrations of people among the Agikuyu, Abagusii, The Nandi, Giriama and all the others who met colonial force. Colonial conquering led to loss of sovereignty as colonial swayers replaced autochthonal leaders. This was one of the sarcasms of British indirect regulation. Based on empty cliche, British indirect regulation frequently led to recruitment of British collaborative agents and porters into leading places. Colonial military expeditions led to genocide and forced migrations of people. Furthermore British colonial disposal reflected orders from Britain instead than the consensus of community leaders. Colonial administration through Chiefs ‘s councils, native courts and local indigen councils was hence a jeer of democracy. Chaired by colonial territory officers these establishments acted as a legal and administrative devises that were intended to maintain Africans in their subsidiary place.A A The intent they served included political expediency and infliction of administrative costs on Africans. Law and order was, hence, maintained in the involvement of British capitalist accretion.

Read from Kenyan Gulag and so you will be able to lucubrate on the point that there were Kenyans who were used as marionettes in order to hold indirect regulation. Look for illustrations of marionettes. And so look for a balance class in favor of that issue. Furthermore this is innerline of a major subject. Could this truly on the post-colonialism. This does hold a negative impact because people being told to work are assimilated to Western Cultrure and are the Betrayers.

On a broader scale colonial programs developed in London. The Europeans dominated executive and legislative councils formulated policies and made budgets in Nairobi with blessing of London.

A Africans were excluded from these councils, which were chaired by the Governor until and after the Second World War. Indeed, even European colonists complained that the councils were dominated by authorities functionaries. British indirect regulation kept administration at a distance from people. The colonial province centralised, radicalised and ethnised power. This administrative set up, salvage its racial furnishings, was entirely inherited by the post-independence government.

A In a cardinal sense post-colonial administration became even more bossy. Unlike the governor who was accountable to the House of Commons, Kenya ‘s station colonial presidents have barely been accountable to Parliament. Constitutional reforms since independency has transformed Kenya into a ancestral and bossy presidential system. Therefore independent Kenya inherited and worsened the colonial crisis of administration with desperate human rights and economic effects

This relates to the thought that a bequest has been achieved because of the Reformed African authorities ; nevertheless the swayers are unfair and bossy and can non be put on test…

Expression for instances that would proof this. The reign of president Arap Moi is a good illustration of bossy president who killed silenced those who raised an issue. And so look into the 1980 putsch and see how you are able to associate to the inequalities of landownership and dictatorial regulation. A political rupture which was a consequence of a dominant folk pickings over the leading.

Sir Fredrick G Lugard, the high priest and agent of British imperialism in East and West Africa one time made the undermentioned statement: “ European encephalons, capital and energy have non been, and ne’er will be expended in developing the resources of Africa from motibes of pure philanthropic gift ” ( quoted Chiryankandath, 2007: 7 ) Lugard had no uncertainties sing the motivations of BritishA A colonialism: economic benefits for British metropolitan and local investors. In Kenya they included a figure of mechant houses and 1000s of European colonists ( Swainson, 1980 ; Ochieng and Maxon, 2000 ) . Like other advocates of British colonialism Lugard did non truly care if Africans in Kenya reaped incidental benefits at the behest of the Keynesian economic sciences of imperialism.

At any rate, BritishA A colonial economic policyA A in Kenya included the followers: Land disaffection for European colonists ( Sorrenson, 1968 ) . African revenue enhancement ( Tarus, 2004 ) , African migrant/ forced labor ( Zeleza, 1992 ) development of colonist dominated agricultural production and peasant trade good production, export production, rail and route conveyance and communicating, instruction and wellness.

Case survey

Railway in Kenya

One of the most important colonial developments that took topographic point in Kenya is the building of the Kenya Uganda railroad which started in 1895, running from the East Coast to Kisumu the West. It was completed by 1901. The British authorities had decided, chiefly for strategic grounds, to construct a railroad associating Mombasa with the British associated state of Uganda. A major effort of technology, the “ Uganda railroad ” ( that is the railroad inside Kenya taking to Uganda ) was completed in 1903 and was a decisive event in overhauling the country. As governor of Kenya, Sir Percy Girourd was instrumental in originating railway extension policy that led to building of the Nairobi-ThikaA A and Konza-Magadi railroads.

Some 32,000 workers were imported from The British India to make the manual labor. Many stay, as did most of the Indian bargainers and little business communities who saw chance in the gap of the inside of Kenya. Rapid economic development was seen unneeded to do the railroad wage, and since the African population was accustomed to subsistence instead than export agribusiness, the authorities decided to promote interior, non merely to the European husbandmans, missionaries, and decision makers, but besides to systematic authorities plans to assail bondage, witchery, disease and dearth. The Africans saw witchery as a powerful influence on their luives and often took violent action against suspected enchantresss. To command this aggression

A

These policies were formulated and implemented incrementally during specific phases of colonialism: the pre-1920 period which was interrupted by the eruption of the First World War ; the interwar period which besides saw the great depression between 1929 and 1934 ; the Second World War 1939-45 and the post-War epoch ( Wiggley, 1965 ) . The execution of these policies was characterized by a series of contradictions withA A which the colonial province had to get by, seldom with any success ( Londsdale and Berman, 1979 ) . There was, for case a clang of involvements between metropolitan capitalists and the colonial province in Kenya. British merchandisers and moneymans frequently won the twenty-four hours. Internally African, Indian and European colonists had the ear of pro-settler governors. Morover, in the involvement of capital these policies were anchored on partial disintegration and restructuring of pre-colonial constructions. It was oftenA A cheaper, even if non efficient, to utilize pre-capitlist forces and dealingss of productions. It was besides in the involvement of capital to replace the market under the colonial ‘s province control. This was done with greater enthusiasm during the Second World War more popularly known as the 2nd colonial business. Colonial trade good production, because of inappropriate pattern, led to widespread environmental debasement. Forest grants which were granted to persons and companies led to massive deforestation.A A Colonial enterprises destroyed local industries. By and large the economic policies in Kenya were instrumental in integrating the pre capitalist communities into the colonial and international economic systems. This persisted into the post-colonial period.

Similarly, Christian missionaries activities destroyed African civilization through the Gospels of redemption, obeisance and work. Through Western instruction, which they had dominated despite the colonial province ‘s function, Christian missions preached against African civilizations. They were emphasized that the African ‘ redemption must be gauged on to the extent to which traditional cultural patterns were abandoned. Their supplications about obeying the authorities because it is God who placed it there was meant to do Africans obey the colonial government. Euro-Christian capitalist work ethic inculcated individuality and acquisitive civilization. Colonial instruction hence fostered the outgrowth of clerks and heads. But some of them like Johane Owalo, Harry Thuku, Jomo Kenyatta, Dedan Kimathi, Oginga Odinga and Tom Mboya. This patriotism had its footing in aboriginal ethnicity and colonial disposal. It was merely after the constitution of the Kenya African Union that the Nationalists attempted territory- broad mobilisation of Kenyans. The colonial province carefully chose the leaders of the independent government as it laid the evidences for neo-colonialism. As elaborated below the colonial economic system and instruction established the constructions and provided the historical forces that basically influenced Kenya ‘s colonial and post-colonial society.

The colonial economic system has had a permanent impact in the undermentioned ways. First, both the colonial and the post-colonial economic systems were characterized by two major signifiers of disarticulation: geographical and structural ( Ake, 1980 ) . The first refers to enclave development, which is concentration of development activities in a few urban countries: Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru, Kisumu, Eldoret and Naivasha. Structural disarticulation refers to the development of a limited scope of activities. In Kenya these activities are mostly cented on agricultural and a really limited scope of Secondary industries.

Second, Kenya ‘s economic system had a narrow base. It is non adequately diversed. It relies on a few primary trade goods including java, tea, pyrethrum and flowers for foreign exchange.

A Harmonizing to Wangari Mathai ‘the old civilization of underdevelopment, corruptness, and manners of unequal leading remained a challenge. How much so was brought place by the predicament of little scale java agriculturists in my constituency. Shortly after the terminal of the Vietnam War, the Vietnamese authorities sent envoies to Kenya to analyze how to spread out its java industry. Kneya, in add-on to holding some of the best java in the universe, conducts research in developing high-yield and disease-resistant varietiesof java. The Vietnamese non merely bought different strains of Kenyan java, but they invited some Kenyan java experts to Vietnam.

‘because java is a trade good = , it is capable to speculatuion on the international markets, and therefore turning or selling it is a really hazardous concern. If the market for the merchandise collapses, whether due to political instability or overrun, husbandmans can stop up with nil. On a big graduated table the whole state suffers ; on a local degree full communities and households go hungry because the husbandmans are turning either harvests to feed people and animalsn in other states or trade goods such as java. ‘

A As a effect Kenya ‘s economic system lacked the desire auto-dynamism. This is chiefly due besides to the economic system ‘s external linkage, which places it at the clemency of fluctuations of universe monetary values.

The 3rd economical heritage includes the monopolistic and imperfect nature of the market. Despite the state ‘s chase of structural accommodation plans since the 1980 ‘s Kenyan province continues to exert control over the market through monetary value ordinance ( Maxon and Ndege, 1995 and Chinsinga, 2004 ) . As happened during the colonial era the market contuinues to function as an instrument of political control and development.

Furthermore, Kenya ‘s economic system continued to be technologically, financially, commercially and monetarily dependent on Britain, other European states, the United States of America and Japan. Since the coming of political independency Kenya has successfully diversified the scope of states on which she is dependent for foreign assistance. The effect of this has been the impairment in the state ‘s balance of payments.

Furthermore, income inequality and poorness have become more prevailing since independency ( Ndege, 2008 ) . Colonialism had its ain portion in the state ‘s inequality and poorness as it promoted rural-urban, reqional and category difference s in the development. As a nconsequence the contradictions that characterized colonial Kenya have been accentuated. These include contradictions in the societal dealingss of production between the international and domestic middle class, cubic decimeter between the peasantries and the nourgeoisie. And between capital and labor ( Ake, 1980, Swainson, 1980 and Leys, 1996 ) Like nthe colonial province, the station colonial province has had to get by with there series of contradictions. The local middle class habitually fall back to high degree corruptness to roll up wealth and power. They besides invoke racial and cultural sentiments to remain in power ( Leys, 1975 and Atieno Odhiambo, 2004 ) . Oversing category and cultural political relations is the president and the political elites around him.

A·A A A A A A A A A Paragraph 4A A – 1963 Kenya Independence under Jomo Kenyatta ( and some political stableness ) buttocks whether this was a consequence of British colonialism – – societal, economic, political & A ; A A ethnic/racial impact – buttocks whether this was positive or negative

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[ 1 ] A Crawford Young ( 1995 ) , “ The African colonial province in Comparative Perspective ”

[ 2 ] A Akurang- Parry, K.O. In Memoriam: An Appreciation of Proffesor A. Adu Boahen ( 1923-06 )

[ 3 ] A Ndege.P.O. ( 2008 ) “ an appraisal of poorness decrease schemes in Kenya, ” , Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Assessment of Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Kenya, Addis Ababa

[ 4 ] A Sherrif, A.M.H. ( 1985 ) “ Social Formations in Pre-colonial Kenya, ”

[ 5 ] A Ndege. P.OA A Colonialism and its Bequests, Department on History, Political scientific discipline and Public Administration

[ 6 ] A Ogot.B.A. ( 2000 ) “ Boundary Changes and the innovation of “ Tribes ”

[ 7 ] A Ndege, P.O. ( 2008 ) “ Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa: The Case of Kenya, Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

[ 8 ] A Ogot 1967, O’connor 1983, Odhubo 1983

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