The Steel Industry Engineering Essay

The Steel Industry Engineering Essay

The Steel industry is situated in Link & A ; ouml ; Ping, Sweden. It produces cold-drawn saloon steel. The one-year production is about 50 000 ton. The bringings goes chiefly to Swedish technology industry and exports to Nordic states, Germany, the UK and the Benelux. The company has 80 employees. The production is organized in runs of three hebdomads with production during 16 yearss. The production is closed during Midsummer and Christmas every bit good during four-week vacations in summertime. The major energy beginnings for the company are electricity and oil.

Since the steel industries are rather big in its construction and production procedures, it uses greater sum of energy. The energy usage is besides high in support procedures such as lighting, infinite warming, airing, etc. During the production procedure, they run different energy-intensive machines, for illustration, bulk-throwing machine, turn uping machine, levelling bench, ternary straightening machine, pulling bench, etc. The sum of energy used has become the major concern for the company because of the eventful higher costs.

Since Sweden has joined the European electricity market, the electricity monetary value in Sweden has raised due to the higher European electricity monetary value. As the major electricity in Sweden comes from hydropower and atomic power workss, its monetary value was lower. But the monetary value has increased to accommodate with the higher European monetary value. This has resulted in an excess load to the industries in Sweden because they are the major energy consumer ( 35-40 per centum ) of the aggregated domestic electricity usage. The industries in Sweden are electricity-intensive in comparison to other European opposite numbers.

The planetary carbon-dioxide emanation is another concern for the industries. The more the energy-use, greater the sum of C dioxide emanation in the environment. This will ensue in a greater external cost. Though Sweden uses less fossil fuel to bring forth electricity, the other states have coal-intensive thermic power workss for this intent. This is a bigger issue associating to the resource preservation for the hereafter, but lies outside the range of this study.

2. Objective and Restrictions

The major grounds for the necessity/urgency of decreased energy ingestion cited above can merely be countered by industries themselves instead than looking for solutions outside them. Therefore the chief aims of this undertaking are as follows:

To transport out the energy study: Dividing processes as a unit procedure ( support and production procedures ) , to cipher energy demand and the one-year energy ingestion and obtaining the balance and to happen the unneeded energy usage in other intents other than the production and its support and mismanaged energy system.

To suggest the energy salvaging steps: After obtaining the figure in the energy study, to suggest the energy salvaging steps shacking within the restrictions and range of this undertaking.

There are legion restrictions that do non let proposing energy salvaging steps in this undertaking. Since the undertaking runs under the class and non itself as a class, it is non possible to travel beyond certain boundaries. Few of them to be cited as follows:

The range of the undertaking does non supply the chance to plan the theoretical accounts using optimization and simulation techniques. It is non possible to transport out the sensitiveness analysis which may perchance propose the optimum energy salvaging manner to run the procedure in the industry.

Lack of cognition in the industrial procedures.

Premise is that all the procedures such as Lighting and office equipment, airing, etc. are running all the clip during working hours.

Every facet of energy usage and loss is non considered and analysed

Limited information.

3. Method

A top-down attack has been employed to transport out the energy study. This attack is to interrupt down the system into the sub-system degree. Then each sub-system is refined in greater inside informations until it reaches a grass-root degree.

Here entire energy input is provided by grid-electricity and oil, while the monthly informations of the twelvemonth 2005 given in the bill is used to cipher the one-year energy ingestion and costs. The mean power recorded during 5 production twenty-four hours informations at the maestro switchgear is considered as a mention because it is located at the top. At the maestro switchgear, the division of supply occurs. These divisions can be categorised into support procedures and production procedures. As mentioned earlier, electricity and oil are the two signifiers of energy beginning used in the industry. Electricity is used in most of the procedures, whereas oil is used for infinite warming and airing.

The elaborate informations of 5 production yearss during November and the information of July ( four non-working hebdomads ) are used as a mention to cipher the power demand during production and non-production periods. To cipher the entire energy demand of lighting, office equipments, fans, etc. , their power specification is used.

4. Consequences

4.1 Energy study

Energy ingestions are chiefly coming from electricity and oil harmonizing to the bill the company provided. We can see in 2005 statistics, the annual electricity ingestion is 3800000 kWh and oil is 2128000 kWh. At the same clip we got the monetary value of energy. The company spent 2813000 SEK and 489000 SEK severally on electricity and oil ; that means the entire energy cost is 3302000 SEK. By now we got the energy input to the company. Here non much of computations involved ; we have merely added the figures together and really easy to acquire the energy ingestion we want to cognize.

Our chief undertaking now is making the energy study. This study can assist us to happen where the energy ingestion traveling during the operation so we are seeking to acquire the manner to make energy economy.

In order to make the study, we need to cognize what processes the company has and how much each procedure uses the energy. If we know how much each procedure consumes the energy we can acquire the entire energy ingestions, although it has non been possible to happen informations for every procedure. But we are seeking our best to do the consequence more close to the world.

In order to screen our computations, we categorised the procedure to back up procedure and production procedure.

First of wholly, we do the support procedure

Table1: Energy used for support procedures

Equipment

Energy usage ( kWh/year )

Elevation

Oil

Lights and office equipments

548000

Ventilation

113600

874400

Space Heating

24500

1253600

Compressed air

368600

1054800

2128000

Here the chief electricity ingestion is visible radiations and office equipments, airing, infinite warming and compressed air. We can happen the procedure power in the information provided. For illustration, the office airing power is 2 kilowatt. Meanwhile we can give the operation clip is 8736 kilowatt that is chiefly used for the infinite warming and airing. The ground is that we can non acquire the information about heat coming from people, Sun, equipment and machine. At the same clip we can non acquire the elaborate informations about heat losingss due to coerce difference of indoor and outdoor and losingss through walls, doors, Windowss since we do non cognize the exact figures about the building of constructing envelope although the building item of wall is provided. More elaborate computation is shown in the appendices.

Second, we do the production procedure

Table2: Energy used for production procedures

Bulk throwing machine

547500

Folding machine

368600

Leveling bench

174300

Ternary straightening machine

396000

Pulling bench

762200

Air drape

67300

Since the power of every machine they are utilizing is changed from clip to clip, we can non acquire the stable power of each machine. And we can non utilize the mean figure to cipher because the mean figure can non give the exact information of the power. So we have used the chance of operation power. For illustration, Pulling machine. The chance of power between 5 kilowatts and 20 kilowatt is 16 % . So the power demand is ( 20+5 ) /2=12,5, 12,5*0,16=2. we have calculated every power and added them to acquire the entire power of this machine. In the terminal multiplying with the operation clip acquire the energy ingestion of each machine.

Table3: Probability of happening

N ( 5 & A ; lt ; P & A ; lt ; 20 ) =

0,16

12,5

2

N ( P=21,26 ) =

0,46

21,26

9,7796

N ( 21,26 & A ; lt ; P & A ; lt ; 150 ) =

0,065

85,63

5,56595

N ( 150 & A ; lt ; P ) =

0,31

344,225

106,70975

0,995

124,0553

Here the operation clip is 6144 hour. Since the production is organized in runs of three hebdomads with production during 16 yearss, i.e. ( 52-4 ) *16/3*24=6144 hours

Entire energy demand for all procedures

Table4: Entire energy demand for all procedures

Procedures

Equipment

Energy usage ( kWh/year )

Electricity

Oil

Support Procedures

Lights and office equipments

548000

Ventilation

113600

874400

Space Heating

24500

1253700

Compressed air

368700

Sum

1054800

2128000

production procedures

Bulk throwing machine

547500

Folding machine

368700

Leveling bench

174300

Ternary straightening machine

395900

Pulling bench

762200

Air drape

67300

Sum

2315700

Others

429500

Entire

3800000

2128000

Energy balance is energy input equal to end product. The energy input we can acquire from the bill

in 2005 ; electricity ingestion is 3800000 kWh and oil is 2128000 kWh. Through computation above we know the electricity of support procedure is 1054800 kWh and 2315700 kWh from production. So the entire electricity usage is 3380500 kWh. Here 429500 kWh we can non calculate out where they are traveling. So we use the class others alternatively.

Here ‘others ‘ in the tabular array means that we can non cipher where they are utilizing this energy for. The chief grounds are:

1, some informations we can non happen at the home page so by now we can state we did non make all the energy ingestion computations. We have omitted some procedures.

2, energy escape is really common during the transportation. Such as, electricity leak from the grid.

3, energy cost besides happens during the fixing work. For case, the equipments care and repairing.

4.2 Energy nest eggs

The chief thought of what we are making the energy study for is to happen out how to cut down the energy ingestion.

After our computation we have got some thoughts on how to cut down the energy ingestion which is as following:

utilizing lower power visible radiation ( support procedure ) or utilizing the commanding switch to set the power demand for illuming.

cut downing the operating clip for airing. They do non necessitate to allow the airing run on all the clip. We suggest they should be used merely during the production clip

cut downing the heat demand through diminishing the heat loss by bettering the insularity quality of the edifice envelope.

permutation, utilizing biofuel to replace the oil is a manner to cut down the energy cost and do the production more environment-friendly. Since we do non hold the informations about this sort of permutation they are non considered for the computation.

burden direction. Reorganizing the operation of machines can assist to cut down the power demand and energy use.

bettering the equipment efficiency can take to the energy usage more efficiency.

Table5: Savingss in visible radiation

Table6: Savingss in Ventilation

Besides the salvaging steps of spacing warming and compressed air are considered. Detail in the appendices.

The improved entire energy ingestion after proposing energy salvaging steps:

Table7: Improved entire energy ingestion

Procedures

Equipment

Energy usage ( kWh/year )

Electricity

Oil

Support

Lights and office equipments

326200

Procedures

Ventilation

79900

201100

Space Heating

24200

1253700

Compressed air

337900

production

Bulk throwing machine

547500

prosesses

Folding machine

368700

Leveling bench

174300

Tripple straightening machine

395900

Pulling bench

762200

Air drape

67300

Others

75500

Entire

3159000

1454800

5. Discussions

After suggesting few energy salvaging steps particularly in the support processes in the industry, we have got important lessening in energy usage. In our instance, electrical energy-use decrease is from 3800 MWh to 3150 MWh ( about 650 MWh per twelvemonth ) . This evidently implies that there is a outstanding decrease in costs. Therefore, we can state that even the little alterations in the behavior in the usage of the energy in the industrial system will hold the major impact.

Here, due to the limited boundary of the undertaking other extended steps can non be suggested. Fixing the mathematical theoretical accounts and experimenting with the optimisation, sensitiveness analysis and simulations can ensue in high-flying impact in energy usage. Thus the industry can profit by optimum usage of energy and nest eggs important sum of money in companies ‘ strategy of things.