Modern Technologies Used In Automation Engineering Topographic Measurements Engineering Essay

Modern Technologies Used In Automation Engineering Topographic Measurements Engineering Essay

The present paper presents new types of engineerings, modern methods and instruments used in topographic measurings, developed and perfected in order to run into the demands of the complex technology plants. Therefore, mechanization of the measuring technique has become of extreme importance. The methods, together with the specific measuring instruments, are classified into three chief classs: mechanical, electrical and optical. They win in carry throughing the demands of the technology plant. The paper trades, in chief, with detailing the electrical method through the detector technique and the optical maser technique.

In order to exemplify the machine-controlled measurings based on the optical maser technique, the paper intends to execute a comparative survey between the values of the additive geometric dimensions in the drawn pieces of the proficient design, approved and non-changeable.

The proficient design of the building with which this paper deals has been provided by the donee. The edifice has been cleared of all pieces of furniture in order to do possible all conclusive measurings.

The measurings have been done by a squad made of two individuals, utilizing for mensurating the distances and surfaces a optical maser metre Leica DISTO A3. This instrument is based on the optical maser technique, viz. Laser category II, Laser type 635 nanometer, & lt ; 1mW.

The optical maser metre is a robust instrument, with the dimensions 135 x 45 ten 31 millimeter and decreased weight ( 145 g ) , which makes it easy to utilize.

Among the proficient features of the Leica DISTO A3 optical maser metre we note:

– The action scope between 0,05 m and 100 m ( severally 0,2 foot to 328 foot ) ;

– The diameter of the optical maser beam is 6/ 30/ 60 millimeters correlated with the mensurating distance of 10/ 50/ 100 m ;

– The typical truth is A± 1 millimeter.

The keyboard allows elemental computations like adding and deducting, every bit good as computation of surfaces and volumes. There besides exist keys for excess maps which calculate the diagonals from the corners, by mensurating the lower limit and upper limit, aboard with memory keys that easy store the mensural values.

This comparative survey is about a residential edifice, with semi-basement, land floor and 7 narratives, in the town of Cluj-Napoca.

The decisions drawn from the comparative survey will be found in the last portion of the paper and will discourse, in chief, the studied distances and surfaces.

surfaces.

Cardinal words ( 7 words ) : measurings, optical maser technique, optical maser metre, preciseness, distances, alliances,

1. Introduction

The technology topographic measurings technique is that portion of the terrestrial measurings which surveies, develops and solves the technology jobs related to plan, executing, operation and clip behaviour study of buildings.

Nowadays entire topographic measurings, represented by three dimensional tacheometric measurings ( tachis = quick ) , are done by agencies of electrical-optical instruments. The development of the most used topographic-geodetic instruments, expecially from the point of position of electronic constituent, lead to it having the name of entire station. This offers, besides the measurings of the characteristic elements of a tachymeter, the possibility of control and computation done straight on the field, automated informations storage every bit good as use of specific programes for different types of engineering-topographic plants.

Use of appropriate methods, devices and engineerings is necessary in order to run into the demands needed for high precission, asked by the technology topographic plants in all sorts

of buildings, edifices and particular technology buildings, such as those in communications: roads, railroads, Bridgess, tunnels, paths, platforms, aerial towers, hydromechnical buildings, industrial buildings, power workss, buildings designed for athleticss activities et Al.

In these last old ages, in technology topography a preoccupation is more and more apparent in order to present new methods and measurement instruments every bit good as to advance experimental research pertainig to particular measurings.

Therefore, cognizing the physical methods which can be applied to the measurings techniques becomes of extreme importance. Equally far as the distance measurings, the distance changes through supplantings and dispositions are concerned, we can separate several mensurating methods, such as:

– mechanical methods,

– electrical methods,

– optical methods.

The present paper aims at doing an analysis of the electrical measurement methods used in the technology measurings technique, by a comparative survey – applied to a multi-story edifice – between the values of the additive geometric dimensions of an implemented undertaking and the values of the same dimensions written in the drawn pieces of the proficient design, approved and nonchangeable.

2. Electrical methods used in the technique of the technology measurings

These methods are used largely for certain plants, related to:

aˆ? finding of the distortions and supplantings of the building objects such as: communicating ways, hydromechnical and hydrological betterment buildings, industrial technology buildings, high towers subjected to strong air currents, instability of inclines, landslides ;

aˆ? installing of the technological equipment and look intoing its placement ;

aˆ? supervising the foundation distortions in the instance of the machine foundations during trials and development.

This implies particular topographic and photogrammetric methods or put ining lasting measurement devices which automatically record the distortions, therefore guaranting a uninterrupted monitoring and recording of the mensural magnitudes. Besides the specific values of the distortions, these devices besides determine a series of geometric readings such as: distances, angles, differences in degree, descents a.s.o.

Get downing from this information new types of techniques in the field of the technology measurings occur. They are based upon the rules of the electrical methods, classified harmonizing to the features and the mode they work:

– the detector technique,

– the optical maser technique.

2.1. The detector technique

The detector is a detecting device ( electrical component ) capable of transforming a non- electrical magnitudes ( stretching, enlargement, temperature, differences in force per unit area ) and chemical ( gas and liquid combinations ) , in mensurable electrical magnitudes.

The detector technique operates with impressions like detector component and detector system and represents the entirety of the hardware and package runing units, for the description of one or more combinations of magnitudes measured by machine-controlled signals.

The big scope of bing detectors, such as the elongations detectors, gradient detectors, temperature detectors, force per unit area detectors, optoelectronic detectors are based on different stuffs and

engineerings such as: semiconducting material technique, the technique of plastic or optical semiconducting materials etc.

We can run into the undermentioned sorts of detectors ( transducers ) , applicable to the proficient measurings: chevrons for elongation measuring, inductive detectors, capacitances and detectors with oscillatory strings, joust ( gradient ) detectors and optoelectronic detectors.

As illustrations of mensurating systems and instruments which use these types of detectors we can retrieve the followers: the hydrostatic measuring system, the Talyvel system, the leveltronic system, the metallic rod extensometer, the Invar wire extensometer, the nomadic boring extensometer ( used for tunnels ) , the deflectometer, the electronic measurement staffs.

2.2. Laser technique used in technology measurings

Laser technique is a dynamic method by which active aming beams are used for aiming, conveying significant benefits to the measurement procedure, compared to conventional methods in which the perceiver uses inactive beams of aiming.

The optical maser is based on the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and affair, and in order to bring forth optical maser light the undermentioned conditions must be met:

a. the environment must be atoms with an appropriate energy degree ; b. a beginning of energy with an appropriate frequence must be present ; c. an optical resonating chamber which amplifies the quantic visible radiation is required.

The operating rule of the optical maser is based on the optical resonating chamber. This device is composed of two parallel mirrors in which the first works as a reflector while the 2nd beam works as a beam diffusor.

Gas, liquid, solid or semiconducting material stuffs are used as beginnings for the optical maser visible radiation. Solid optical maser beginnings are used for geodesic orbiters in order to mensurate the pulsation length, and semiconducting materials are used to mensurate the length of the amplitude of the modulated signals in the electric-optical distance measuring.

Figure 1. The operating rule of the optical maser

The most widely used optical maser technique in technology measuring uses gas as light beginning, peculiarly the He-Ne optical maser. This type of optical maser sends a uninterrupted beam and it is characterized by high measuring truth in this country, being used in the undermentioned types of measurings:

a. measuring of distances through the stage comparing method ;

b. truth measuring of the distances through the intervention method ;

c. alliance and orthogonality d. tallness and angle measurings.

2.2.1. Accuracy of measurings

The basic rule of the survey of the optical maser beam behavior is that it has a similar behaviour, in footings of refraction, with an taking optical beam. For measurings utilizing the optical maser engineering in technology and in the technique of measurings for buildings, the mistakes caused by the atmospheric refraction, by the orientation of the optical maser beam and any possible alterations in temperature will be taken into history.

The constituents of the measurement mistakes of optical maser systems, with standard divergences are:

I?S – the stableness mistake constituent for the way of the optical maser beam ;

I?C – the accommodation and receiving system reading mistake constituent ;

I?R – the refraction mistake constituent ;

I?T – the transmittal mistake constituent ( from the optical maser, severally the receiving system, on the

data point points ) .

Taking these four constituents into history it was established that the entire standard divergence expression has the undermentioned look:

2 2 2 2

I? = I? S + I? C + I? R + I? T.

Figure 2. Measurement of distances utilizing the rule of optical maser urges

2.2.2. Types of optical maser instruments

The orientation of the optical maser beam is an of import facet of technology measurings and differs depending on the type of the instrument and the work to be done. Table 2 summarizes the possibilities of utilizing the He-Ne optical maser for technology plants in buildings or other specialised Fieldss:

Table 2. Types of optical maser instruments

Instrument type

Type of work

Orientation of the optical maser beam

Laser setup for alliance

( illustration: Leica DISTO A3 laser metre )

Alliances

Spatial ( horizontal or

inclined )

Laser measurement staffs

Measuring the differences

in degree

Horizontal

Laser transit

Angle measurement

Spatial

Revolving optical maser

Generating a data point

surface

Horizontal, perpendicular,

inclined

Lot optical maser

Vertical transmittals

Vertical

2.2.3. Checking and rectifying the optical maser setups

To obtain more precise consequences of measurings, optical maser instruments must be checked and rectified in item, in order to extinguish the systematic mistakes and cut down random mistakes. Therefore, these types of instruments are checked and rectified by particular methods, which involve look intoing both the optical constituent and the optical maser device.

Choosing the method of confirmation and rectification varies from one instrument to another, depending on its constituents and the operating rules, and is based on logical procedures.

3. Case survey

In order to carry on the survey, the proficient design of the building ( or the drawn parts, done by graduated table ) , was provided by the donee. Besides, the belongings has been cleared of all pieces of furniture, in order to do possible as accurate measurings as possible.

The analysis of the measuring consequences, which makes the topic of this paper, refers to a edifice used for brooding, holding belowground floor + land floor + 7 narratives, located in Cluj-Napoca. The block consists of 51 flat type lodging units and has two subdivisions ( stair instances ) , I and II.

The maps of the edifice are those specific to residential edifices. The belowground infinite is intended entirely as parking infinite for autos. The belowground parking floor country screens

1220.64 sqm and the design was done for 39 parkings for autos and a infinite for parking proficient equipment. On the land floor and the upper floors flats with one, two or three suites, one kitchen and one or two bathrooms were designed, with utile countries between 553.09 and

420.23 sqm. On the patio type top floor, the proficient degree, we can happen the boiler room and infinites for the lift machinery. The roof is level, walkable and is covered with drifting tiles and flora zones and has been designed with a incline of 2 % .

Harmonizing Norm P100 – 2006 for seismal design of edifices, the edifice in treatment is located in the seismal zone F, the importance class of the edifice being “ C ” . The edifice is within category III from the point of position of the importance and exposure to temblors and in class 4 when it comes to fire opposition.

The opposition construction of the edifice is made of strengthened concrete frames. From a structural point of position, the perpendicular development includes the undermentioned sub elements: uninterrupted and stray foundations under the pillars of strengthened concrete, lifts, stop, reinforced concrete floors and staircases, shuting perimetric walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete and the patio type roof. As nonstructural elements of involvement in this survey we mention the divider walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete or plaster.

The measurings were carried out by a squad of two people, equipped with a tool which measures distances and countries, viz. a lasermeter ( or distomat ) Leica DISTO A3. This tool is based on optical maser engineering, viz. : Laser category II, Laser type 635 nanometer, & lt ; 1mW.

The lasermeter is a robust instrument, of reduced size ( 135 x 45 ten 31 millimeter ) and weight

( 145 g ) , which makes it ease to use/operate.

Among the proficient characteristics of the lasermeter Leica DISTO A3 we can advert:

– the scope is between 0.05 m and 100 m ( 0.2 foot to 328 foots severally ) ;

– the diameter of the optical maser beam is 6/30/60 millimeter correlated with the distance to be measuring of 10/50/100 m

– the typical truth is A± 1 millimeter.

The keyboard allows executing basic maps such as add-on and minus, every bit good as the computation of countries and volumes. Keys for extra maps are besides provided which calculate the diagonals from the corners, by mensurating the lower limit and upper limit values, and besides other keys that store easy the mensural values.

As a in writing support and in order to roll up Table 2 three representative suites of different flats, from the two subdivisions were selected ( Fig. 3 ) . In each room, measurings were done for additive elements, with the distomat, on the two waies of the chief axes of the edifice and the average value of measurings were recorded. Using the country computation map, the countries of the suites were calculated, by utilizing the consequences from the measurings. Besides, the tabular array includes and high spots individually the theoretical values ( which are in the proficient undertaking approved and nonchangeable ) for the additive and surface elements matching to those measured utilizing Leica DISTO A3 distomat.

Figure 3. Representation of the studied suites, from the two subdivisions – inside informations from the proficient design of the edifice

Table 2. The consequences

No.

The studied room/Axis/ Section

The floor

Linear elements =

Horizontal distances

( metres )

Supraface of the suites

( square metres )

Ratio between the arithmetic agencies of the measured values and the theoretic value for distances

Ratio between the arithmetic agencies of the measured values and the theoretical value for surfaces

Written in the drawn pieces of the tehnical design ( theoretic )

Meanss of

the values measured at the concluding phase of the executing, with Leica DISTO A3 optical maser metre

Written in the drawn pieces of the proficient design

Consequences after the measure- ments at the concluding phase of the executing

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1.

Room no. 1

axis 2 -3 ten C-D Section I

Gro-

und floor

axis 2-3

5,800

5,750

27,985

27,657

0,991

0.988

axis C-D

4,825

4,810

0,997

Narrative

I

axis 2-3

5,800

5,760

27,985

27,648

0,993

0.988

axis C-D

4,825

4,800

0.995

Narrative

Two

axis 2-3

5,800

5,775

27,985

27,720

0,996

0,991

axis C-D

4,825

4,800

0,995

Narrative

Three

axis 2-3

5,800

5,830

27,985

27,984

1,005

0,999

axis C-D

4,825

4,800

0,995

Narrative

Four

axis 2-3

5,800

5,760

27,985

27,648

0.993

0,988

axis C-D

4,825

4,800

0.995

2.

Room no. 2

axis 4 -5 ten A-B Section I

Gro-

und floor

axis 4-5

5,470

5,500

31,288

31,460

1,005

1,006

axis A-B

5,720

5,720

1,000

Narrative

I

axis 4-5

5,470

5,480

31,288

31,236

1,001

0,998

axis A-B

5,720

5,700

0,996

Narrative

Two

axis 4-5

5,470

5,500

31,288

31,350

1,005

1,002

axis A-B

5,720

5,700

0,996

Narrative

Three

axis 4-5

5,470

5,450

31,288

31,065

0,996

0,993

axis A-B

5,720

5,700

0,996

Narrative

Four

axis 4-5

5,470

5,500

31,288

31,460

1,005

1,006

axis A-B

5,720

5,720

1,000

3.

Room no. 3

axis 5′-6 ten A-B Section II

Gro-

und floor

axis 5′-6

3,840

3,830

22,848

23,018

0,997

1,007

axis A-B

5,950

6,010

1,010

Narrative

I

axis 5′-6

3,840

3,845

22,848

22,801

1,001

0,998

axis A-B

5,950

5,930

0,997

StoryII

axis 5′-6

3,840

3,840

22,848

22,848

1,000

1,000

axis A-B

5,950

5,950

1,000

Narrative

Three

axis 5′-6

3,840

3,800

22,848

22,420

0,990

0,981

axis A-B

5,950

5,900

0,992

Narrative

Four

axis 5′-6

3,840

3,850

22,848

23,023

1,003

1,008

4. Decisions

Analyzing and comparing the theoretical values ( shown in the proficient undertaking approved and nonchangeable ) with the measured values ( set in work ) of the same additive elements, which are the topic of the present survey, it appears that these values are really near, with divergences between 23 ? 25 millimeter for room no. 1, 12 ? 16 millimeter for room no. 2 and 4 ? 7 millimeter for room no. 3. This determination enables us to appreciate that the technology topographic charting and executing work every bit good as the construction-mounting work were made with corresponding truth, particularly for suites no. 2 and no. 3.

Therefore, we notice that the ratio between the sizes ( both linear and surface ) of the three suites on the studied floors, scope between: 0.990 ? 1.005 for the additive elements and

0.981?1,008 for the surface elements.

Besides the truth of the measurings, we can besides detect both the quickness and the effectivity of such a procedure, designed to back up the comparing and correlativity between theoretical and existent values of the completed building. These points are required to be determined at the completion of the building of civil edifices, at the clip the edifice is taken into usage and are besides necessary at the minute when the edifice is recorded in the official existent estate records so that the proprietor can acquire a rubric.

Therefore, we consider that the usage of optical maser engineering, represented by instruments and modern equipment and illustrated in this instance by Leica DISTO A3 manages to accomplish outstanding public presentation measurings in technology surveying work.