Describe How Each Factor Is Measured Engineering Essay

Describe How Each Factor Is Measured Engineering Essay

There are many factors that affect human comfort in the internal built environment. Human comfort is affected by thermic factors ; physical factors and personal factors. Another factor that can impact human comfort is sound of the environment around them. The concluding factor that affects the human comfort is the ocular of the room and the light strength. There are ways to mensurate the physical factors that affect human thermic comfort, the sound comfort and the ocular comfort.


The mean temperature inside a edifice is 19-21 grades and exterior is -1 grades, but there are two different thermic factors that affect the temperature of the room and human comfort ; they are physical and personal factors. The physical factors include ; air temperature, average radiation temperature, comparative humidness and air speed. The air temperature inside of a edifice will alter depending on the temperature outside the edifice, and the k-values of the stuffs used to construct the walls and insularity. K-values are the values that all stuffs have which shows how good dielectrics the stuffs are, the lower the k-value the more affectional the stuffs are at retaining heat. The u-value is what the overall heat opposition of the stuffs are. Air temperature is besides affected by the people inside the edifice and they activity they are making. The average beaming temperature is besides a factor impacting human comfort ; the mean beaming temperature is the radiation that is coming into the edifice from Windowss and walls, balanced against the radiation given off by the human organic structure. The comparative humidness is another factor that affects the air temperature ; the comparative humidness is the per centum of H2O vapor impregnation that is in the air. The concluding physical factor that affects human comfort is the air speed ; this is the motion of the air throughout a edifice or a room. This can be affected by the convection in the room, the warm air enters a room and rises to the ceiling, forcing the cold air downwards and draft besides changes the air speed, the cold air flows into the room and makes the temperature of the draught way colder that the room temperature.

Personal factors can impact the human comfort in a edifice, these include ; age, gender, province of wellness, vesture and the degree of activity. The age of a individual greatly affects the temperature of a room ; older people give off less heat so younger people. The gender of a individual is a factor impacting the temperature they give off, with females giving off 85 % less heat than males. Gender is besides a factor that affects the temperature given off by people, females give off less heat than males, and they give off 85 % of what the male organic structure gives away. The province of wellness of the individual besides affects the heat that they give off and the temperature of the room, a individual who is ill or has an illness gives off less heat that a individual who is physically healthy. The vesture you are have oning besides affects the temperature that you need to be comfy, depending on the weight of the vesture you will necessitate different temperatures to experience comfy e.g. swimwear 29 grades, light dressing 25 grades, suit, jumper 22 grades, coat, glove, hat 14 grades. The degree of activity you are making besides affects the heat that you give away and the temperature needed to experience comfy. Sleeping 70W, watching Television 115W, office 140W, mill work 265W, raising 440W.


Sound in the environment that a individual occupies greatly affects their comfort in the edifice. Sound is a signifier of energy that is transmitted in force per unit area moving ridges and alterations depending on the force per unit area of the air in the room. Sound is the quiver of the atoms in a moving ridge that send the atoms in all waies and distribute out ; this creates a form of refraction and compression. Sound has two different beginnings and types where it can arise from, they are impact/structure-borne sound and air-borne sound. These are different as they are where the beginning of the sound comes from. Air-bone sound is sound which travels through the air before making a divider, intending that the quivers must hold travelled through the air before they reach the divider. Main beginnings of air-borne noise are ; voices, wirelesss and musical instruments. Impact sound is quivers that are generated on the divider and a uninterrupted quiver can be classed as a series of impact noises in sequence. Impact noise does non go through air like air-borne noise does. The chief beginnings of impact noise are ; footfalls, banging doors and vibrating machinery. It is of import to cognize the difference between impact and air-borne noise as the methods that are used to forestall them are really different. However a individual beginning could bring forth both air-borne and impact noise e.g. footfalls, on the floor below the beginning, the sound would be impact as it is started on the divider, but in the room of the sound it travels through it before making the divider doing it both air-born and impact. There are different ways of forestalling both types of sound, so different installings must be put in to insulate from the type of sound. Air-born sound can be prevented by a mass of dividers e.g. thick walls as lightweight atoms give really small opposition unless they are in beds. The chief ways to forestall impact sound are by utilizing quiver tablets and soft covering on floors and walls. Sound reverberates, so if a sound all of a sudden stops the sound will non halt immediately. The clip taken for the echo of a sound decays at different rates depending on the country of the open surfaces, sound soaking up values of the stuffs used in the edifice, the distance between the surfaces and the sound and the frequence of the sound.


The concluding factor that affects human comfort is light strength. If the visible radiation degrees are excessively low or excessively high so it will non be as suited. Light travels in beams and bouncinesss off objects and into the oculus. The beams can non flex so they must travel in consecutive lines, but light can be refracted through certain stuffs which can flex the beam somewhat. The light demands to be the right strength so that the eyes do n’t hold to strive excessively much if it is excessively dark or if the visible radiation is excessively bright it may blind. Light can be controlled by allowing certain sums of natural visible radiation through Windowss and besides by the brightness of the unreal visible radiation from the visible radiation bulbs. Natural visible radiation can be controlled by utilizing darkened Windowss and the unreal visible radiation can be controlled by holding dimmers on the visible radiations to alter the strength as the strength of natural visible radiation alterations. Glare can impact the human comfort, blaze is a light strength that is excessively high reflecting off a surface and reflecting into the eyes doing it hard to see item or may do ocular uncomfortableness.

P2- Describe how each factor is measured

There are methods that are used to mensurate the physical factors that affect human thermic comfort. To mensurate the physical factors, the instruments that are used are ; thermometers, Earth thermometer, hygrometer and wind gauge. A thermometer is a device that is used to mensurate the temperature of a room, a thermometer includes a liquid that rises as the temperature does and on the side a graduated table that measures the temperature in & A ; deg ; C and grades & A ; deg ; F. A Earth thermometer is a device that measures beaming heat and consists of a thermometer detector with a bulb located at the center of a black Cu bulb. The Earth thermometers units ‘ of measuring are & amp ; deg ; C. This can be used to cipher the mean beaming temperature supplying that you know the air speed and temperature. A hygrometer is an instrument that is used to mensurate that impregnation of H2O vapor in the air of the environing environment. This instrument relies on the force per unit area, temperature, mass and mechanical or electrical alteration. By graduating the device and ciphering the other factors the humidness can be worked out. It measures its units in per centums. An wind gauge is a device used to mensurate the velocity of air current, but there is besides an wind gauge that measures the force per unit area of air current, it consists of three or four cups that revolve around a shaft at different velocities depending on the air current temperature and force per unit area. They are step in metres per second.

Sound is measured utilizing a sound degree metre, this instrument analyses the sound that it picks up and uses electronics to change over the sound onto a digital graduated table. Sound flat metre can pick up sound immediately or can be used to pick sound up over clip and the norm can be calculated.

The strength of visible radiation in a room can be measured utilizing a light metre. The light metre works utilizing an electrical current which is generated by light-sensitive negatrons that detect the sum of light hitting the surface. This causes the negatrons to respond depending on the sum hitting the surface and is so converted into an electrical reading.

P3- State acceptable values for each factor

Each measuring has a scope of acceptable values that affect the human comfort is the environment. The suited scope for temperature in a room is from 19 & A ; deg ; C- 21 & A ; deg ; C. This is besides the same value with a Earth thermometer. The acceptable value for the humidness of a room ranges from 40 % -60 % .

The units of measuring that sound is calculated in is dBs and the suited scope in a workplace is from 135dB-137dB upper limit.

Light strength is measured utilizing Lux, the acceptable values for the strength of visible radiation is 50- 100Lux.

P4- Interpret underpinning constructs associating to constructions under burden

Buildings have many different constituents that are used to maintain the edifice steady and guarantee that it is as structurally strong as possible. There are six different structural members that are used in edifices, they are ; prances, ties, beams, columns, roof and frames.

In edifices the structural members are used to help the edifices when they are keeping a burden or to assist protect against tonss. There are three different types of tonss that are user upon a edifice, they are ; dead tonss, imposed tonss and air current tonss.

Structural Components

A tie is a structural constituent that is designed to transport tensile force? on a edifice or high standing construction. They hold the edifice steady and aid to defy high air currents. Struts are used to administer the weight throughout the edifice. The prance attaches to the roof and wall. The weight of the roof pushes down on the prances and transportations the weight onto the wall. This is the compressive force that is forcing against the weight of the construction. Beams are used to cross between walls, they have both the forces of compaction and tenseness moving upon them. They can be supported by columns. Columns are used to back up a weight and reassign it vertically and downwards, they support the foundation and can be used to forestall beams from flexing and interrupting under the force. Beams are besides used to maintain the columns in topographic point. They vary in size and are really of import to the construction, if they are excessively long or excessively thin so the column may go deformed and will non work good. Walls are besides a structural member. There are two different sorts of walls ; they are load bearing and non-load bearing in fill panels. Load bearing walls are classed as structural elements as the force is safely carried to the foundations of the construction. They are built of stronger stuffs than normal walls ; this makes the walls more solid and prevents the wall from interrupting. The non-load bearing walls are made of cheaper, lighter stuffs as they are non needed for structural unity. Frames are the concluding structural member. Frames are when all of the other structural members are linked together in a edifice. There are different sorts of frames depending on which structural members are linked together. Frames can be designed on computing machine package which makes the complex constructions easier to do. However, they still need reexamining. There are three different types of frame constructions, they are ; grid skeleton, truss frame and portal frame.


The three different types of burden are dead tonss, imposed tonss and air current tonss. Dead tonss are tonss which are stationary and will non travel throughout the life clip of the edifice. They remain inactive and are ne’er added to or removed from the construction. Imposed tonss are another burden that acts upon a edifice. Imposed tonss are besides known as dynamic tonss. They are tonss that alteration throughout the life of a edifice. Live tonss can erratically alter, so the supports that are used demand to be placed for unpredictable alterations. The concluding burden that acts upon a edifice is wind burden. The air current burden can be besides classed as a unrecorded burden. They are unpredictable and can change depending on where the edifice is and the exposure of the walls. The opposition of the walls needs to be designed to defy unrecorded tonss that will alter erratically.

Load Configurations

A edifice will hold different sorts of tonss on it. There are two different sorts of burden constellations, they are ; point tonss and uniformly distributed tonss. The manner that the edifices are strengthened for the different tonss varies greatly to be as safe and efficient as possible. A point burden is a weight that will move on a certain point on the floor ; this is usually used for a heavy point that wo n’t be moved. This is supported by a beam with greater or equal strength forcing upwards. However, a uniformly distributed burden is for unrecorded tonss that will travel invariably and is n’t excessively heavy. The uniformly distributed tonss are equally distributed tonss throughout the construction. It is easier to plan a edifice on the uniformly distributed burden as this works for most tonss that are in a edifice.


Buildings have many things that can alter their signifiers and forms. Stresses act on the structural members and stuffs that are used in the edifice. The different types of emphasiss are ; compaction, tenseness, shear, emphasis and strain. Compaction is a perpendicular force that is formed when a downward force pushes down on the construction. Stress is the force, in Newton ‘s, that is moving upon a cross sectional country. Compression and tenseness normally act upon the same objects, such as a beam. Tension is when the fibers within the stuff are being pulled apart. The stuff is stretched and disfigured, doing it weaker. When shear is moving upon a stuff the beds of the object displacement and the object becomes weaker and stretched. This can draw apart stuffs which are connected by bolting and welding. Strain is non a force, but it is a measuring, it is the extension of length. Strain has no unit as it is ratio. There are three different types of strain ; tensile strain, compressive strain and shear strain. Tensile strain is when the bow applied pulls a stuff from both terminals, this stretches the stuff. Compressive strain is when the force applied crushes or compresses a stuff ; this reduces the length of the stuff. Shear strain is the force applied which changes the form of an object. However, the volume of the stuff stays the same.

P5- Predict simple structural behavior from given informations


Negative shear on a beam will coerce the right manus side of the beam upwards, falsifying the form and strength in the left half of the beam. Whereas, positive shear on a beam will coerce the left manus side upwards, this could ensue in the beam snap or snapping.


Bending on a beam besides affects the form and effectivity of a beam. Positive bending in a beam causes the beam to flex downwards and causes more force per unit area on the lower cross subdivision of the beam ; this is known as ‘sagging ‘ . But negative bending causes the beam to flex upwards, seting more force per unit area on the upper cross subdivision of the beam ; this is known as ‘hogging ‘ . These both cause deformation on the beam and do the beam unfit for its usage.



P6 – Identify the chief public presentation standards associating to the specification of a scope of vocationally relevant building stuffs

There are many stuffs that can be used in a edifice. Each of the different stuffs has different utilizations and is suited to forestalling certain things go oning to the edifices construction and aesthetics. Three stuffs that are most normally used as edifice stuffs are ; timber, plastics and metals.


Timber is one of the most common stuffs used in a edifice. It is really various and can be used for many things. Timber has been used in edifices for 1000s of old ages.

Timber is strong because of the way of the grain. If it is split across the grain it is much stronger than dividing down the grain. But if the lumber is disconnected perpendicular to its grain it will be much weaker. Timber is a really stiff stuff and has and does non flex unless under really high sums of emphasis and would snarl if excessively much weight and force per unit area is put upon it. Timber is a porous stuff as it has pockets of air ; this means that it can absorb H2O. Timber stuffs are hydroscopic, intending that they easy absorb big sums of H2O from the air. Because of wet motion, this means that if hydrated lumber goes from a cold topographic point to a heated house so the lumber would shrivel, go deformed and cleft. Timber has no thermal or electrical conduction, intending that it has high electric resistance. Timber does non carry on electricity or heat. This means that is can be used to halt the flow of electricity and heat. Timber has a really low U-value, so it is a really good stuff to insulate with. Timber is besides a really lasting and strong stuff. However, it is non fireproof, intending that if it is exposed to fire it will fire.

Because lumber is inconsistent, it must be emphasis graded so that it can be set to different utilizations. There are many different utilizations for lumber ; floor joists, ceiling joists, roof balks, hip balks and roof trusses. TRADA literature is responsible for rating the lumber, their utilizations and the mean span of the lumber.

Metallic element

Metallic element has multiple utilizations in building because of its diverseness. The metal that is used the most in building is mild steel. Steel is really strong and can get by good many different state of affairss ; steel can besides hold a little high of snap in it depending on its size and breadth. Steel can usually take a high sum of emphasis and will return to its original form, significance that steel has a high elastic bound. Steel has no prosperity, intending that is has no air gaps in it and can non absorb H2O. Steel is a H2O cogent evidence stuff and can be used to hive away H2O, barricade an country or path of H2O or to protect something from H2O e.g. steel roof sheeting. When steel is heated it will spread out. Steel, like any other metal, is a really good music director of thermic and electrical energy. This meant that metals can be used as electrical wiring and radiators. Steel, because of its denseness, allows it to be a lasting stuff. But it may corrode if it is non maintained. Metal is used a batch in building ; lead roof liner, chromium steel steel wall tiles, steel frames and galvanised roof straps.


Plastics are another stuff that is often used tonss in building. Plastics are complex compounds that are produced by polymerization. Plastics are ductile, so they can be altered and moulded into any form and used for many different things. . Plastic is really resilient and does non degrade. They are besides really various and most plastics are H2O cogent evidence and cheap. Plastic is non a really strong stuff and, but plastic has high snap, so it will get down to deform quicker but will return to its original form. Plastic is non a really porous stuff and will defy H2O good, doing it a good stuff to halt the flow of H2O. This besides means that the wet motion within plastic would non alter as because it has no air pockets that can make full with wet. Although plastic has a high electrical electric resistance, it has a really high thermic conduction, doing it a good stuff to insulate wiring, but besides a good stuff to administer heat. Plastics are non really lasting as they can rub easy and can go weather-beaten, so are frequently used indoors and covered.

Plastics are used in many different parts of building ; PVC window frames, to cover and watertight spreads.

P7- Describe the production procedure and/or fabricating procedure for two vocationally relevant building stuffs

All stuffs that are used in building must travel through a specific production procedure to do them as strong and pure as possible. This is so that they will last longer and many will be reclaimable.


Timber has a really specific procedure that makes it every bit strong as it can and every bit resilient as possible.

When trees are cut down for lumber they are selected and merely certain trees may be cut down from certain countries. After the trees are cut down they must be replaced so that the population of trees corsets steady. When trees are cut down they are really damp, so they must dry the lumber out. They do this by utilizing a certain method. This method is air/ kiln drying. After this is done, the wet of the tree is reduced greatly and the lumber becomes stronger. Many different lumber merchandises can so be produced by from the lumber after the wet per centum beads below 20 % .

There are two different classs for lumber, they are hardwood and deal. Hardwoods are stronger than soft forests because the hardwoods contain two types of cells. There are cells that transportation sap and cells that provide strength to the tree. There are many different trees that produce hardwood, they are ; oak, beech, ash and walnut. Softwood trees are weaker and usually include trees such as Douglas fir.


When steel is produced it can travel through one of two procedures which strengthen and purify the steel and do it every bit strong as possible.

The UK steel industry uses two different procedures to fabricate steel. The arc furnace is use, this is powered by electricity. The other method is the basic O convertor. There are three natural stuffs that are used to do steel, they are ; fluxes, run Fe and coke.

The discharge procedure uses natural stuffs that are cold to get down with. A vas is filled with tonss of recycled bit steel. Electric investigations are dropped into the vas and the palpebra is shut. When the power is turned on discharge from between the investigations and run the mixture. Other metals are added as the procedure goes on so that the best quality steel can be produced. Oxygen is blown into the mixture so that the steel can be purified.

The 2nd method that is used to make mild steel is the O converter. This procedure uses molten Fe, produced in a blast furnace. The liquefied Fe is poured into a vas and bit steel is added. Oxygen is so blown into the mixture by a spear, this purifies the steel and the drosss float to the surface of the mixture. The bi-product of this procedure, scoria, is so scraped off the top. The purified steel is so taken to be processed into metal bars, notes or is continuously poured and rolled into form.

P8- Describe the of import characteristics and belongingss of construction-related stuffs


There are many different standards that affect the stuffs and whether or non the stuffs are effectual. The specifications which affect these are whether it is fit for intent, aesthetics, the costs, opposition to debasement, easiness of installing and usage, environmental deductions, sustainability and recycling possible, COSHH considerations and compatibility of the stuffs. All of these factors will impact the determination of which stuffs to utilize.

Fit for intent

Materials normally have a criterion or specification set by and recognized criterions organic structure. All stuffs have a set ‘fit for intent ‘ ; these are recognised worldwide and are the quality criterions. This is so that the stuffs can be purchased globally with the same specifications.


The visual aspect of a stuff is really of import to the designers, interior decorators and the client. The expression of the stuff can besides be linked in with the texture of the stuff and the stuffs that are used with it. Light can besides be a big factor in the visual aspect of stuffs. The expression of the stuff may alter in different visible radiations and different temperatures. The traditional stuffs that were being used are less popular and the newer, greener stuffs are going more popular and are seen as more attractive.


Costss of stuffs are besides a really of import factor in the determination of what will be used. If the budget of the undertaking is low or running out so the stuffs would hold to be cheaper. Higher quality stuffs are besides more dearly-won than stuffs that are a lower quality. However, more expensive stuffs will turn out to be cheaper in the long term over a longer clip as they will non necessitate to be replaced changed or repaired frequently.

Resistance to debasement

Materials quality and denseness is linked with the opposition of the stuff. If the stuff is used in a busy country so it will necessitate to be a more heavy stuff. Degradation can be a consequence of many things ;





Sunlight ‘s harmful UV beams

Air pollution

Age of the stuff

Design is a really of import factor in the opposition of stuff. The arrangements of certain things that help the stuffs resist certain factors. Material choice takes many factors into history, the environment, location and the use.

Ease of installing or usage

A stuff that would necessitate shopkeeper to put in would be more dearly-won than a stuff that could be installed and used by anyone. If a stuff is besides easy maintained, it will be cheaper and more desirable. If a stuff needs replacing it may be a batch more if a shopkeeper in needed once more. A cheaper stuff may besides hold big costs when it needs to be replaced or repaired at the terminal of its life span.

Environmental deductions

Issues affecting greener stuffs are going more of import with new edifices. Whether a stuff is environmentally friendly is a big factor in material choice. The sum of C produced in the fabrication of the stuff and the embedded energy must both be taken into consideration when make up one’s minding on a stuff. Materials which are entirely or partly recycled should be considered over other stuffs so that the consequence of planetary heating can be reduced.

Sustainability and recycling possible

Materials should now include elements of sustainable stuffs and should be designed with respects with the environment so that valuable resources are non utilize up in the procedure. Timber merchandises are a good stuff as they are produced from trees, which can be re-grown and will non run out, the waste stuffs can be used for different merchandises and can be recycled into other merchandises after it has been used and needs to be changed.

COSHH considerations

The control of substances risky to wellness is really of import when taking stuffs to construct with. This is of import as it takes into history:

Chemicals used in the production of the stuff

Chemicals used to handle the stuffs

Chemical linear portion of a stuff

Many stuffs include chemicals which are harmful, so they need a trained secret agent to put in the stuffs. Merchandises like dissolvers are being replaced in usage as the dissolvers are harmful to the environment in its usage in modern merchandises and besides the production procedure. Manufacturer ‘s informations sheets are besides read so that the chemicals used are safe and acceptable and if non so the chemicals should be changed so that it is less harmful to the environment.


Compatibility is besides a factor which affects the stuff pick. If certain stuffs are non compatible with each other and may respond severely to each other, this can do types of corrosion and would be dearly-won in care and replacing. Ways that this can be avoided is by using coatings to the surfaces that will protect them from chemicals given off in reactions.


The belongingss of a stuff have a big consequence on the determination of the stuff that will be used. Different stuffs have different strengths and will be better suited in certain state of affairss. The belongingss that are taken into history are ; strength, snap, porousness and H2O soaking up, thermic and moisture motion, thermic and electrical conductivity/resistivity, thermic transmission, lastingness, workability, denseness, specific heat capacity and viscousness.


The strength of a stuff is the sum of tenseness, emphasis or weight that a stuff will be able to digest before the stuffs bound is reached and begins to deform. Materials strength vary depending on the type of stuff.


Elasticity is the sum of emphasis that a stuff can take before it reaches its elastic bound and the material becomes distorted and its dimensions are altered for good. The snap of a stuff will besides vary depending on the production and the nature of the stuff.

Porosity and H2O soaking up

Porosity is the sum of air pockets or pores that are within a stuff. The denseness of a stuff is closely linked with porousness. If a stuff is heaver per unit volume so it will hold fewer pores inside. The porousness of a stuff is tested by weighing the stuff so go forthing the stuff in H2O for a set sum of clip and re-weighing the stuff. This will supply a measuring, which can be shown as per centums, of the sum of H2O that the stuff absorbed.

Thermal and wet motion

Thermal motion is alterations in stuffs depending on the clip of twelvemonth. All stuffs contract with cold and expand with heat. Many stuffs have high rates of enlargement and contraction, so anticipations of articulations must be provided for in the brickwork or concrete. These articulations would let for enlargement and contraction and helpful in countries with altering climes.

Moisture motion is the ability for stuffs to absorb H2O from the air. Materials that can absorb a batch of wet from the air may spread out and deform. But if placed into a warm country, they can shrivel and go deformed.

Thermal and electrical conductivity/resistivity

The thermal and electrical electric resistance is the stuffs ability to barricade the transition of electric and thermic energy. Thermal and electrical conduction is closely linked in stuffs. Materials that are good music directors of heat are normally good music directors of electricity. However, plastics do n’t carry on electricity but are good music directors of heat. Any metal can carry on electricity.

Thermal transmission

Thermal transmission is the U-value of a stuff. The U-value of stuffs Tells you how effectual the stuff is at halting heat. If a U-value is lower it is more efficient at halting the transition of heat.


Lastingness is the stuffs opposition to any signifier of harm that can happen to the surface of the stuff. This is besides linked to the life rhythm of the stuffs. Denser stuffs are really lasting and can defy big sums of surface harm, doing them more difficult erosion than stuffs that are less heavy. Materials lastingness besides depends on whether the stuff is looked after right and if it has the right signifiers of varnish and protection.


Workability is how easy a stuff can be produced and formed. The workability of stuffs has many factors that affect it. If a stuff has excessively much or excessively small of what is needed to do it so the stuff will be harder to work with and organize into the right forms and sizes without any imperfectnesss.


The denseness of a stuff is how heavy it is in comparing to its size. Density is besides the grade of how compact the stuff is. Denser stuffs are more lasting and normally have a longer life span. Density is expressed as:

Density = Mass


Specific heat capacity

Specific heat capacity is the alteration in the figure of Js in a stuff or substance without the stuff altering its province. This is closely linked with thermic capacity, which is how much heat can be stored in a stuff. Thermal capacity is expressed as: Thermal capacity = Mass X Specific capacity

The sum of heat needed to do a alteration in the temperature of a stuff ‘s specific mass is expressed as: Measure of heat = MC?T


Viscosity is the opposition of a liquid to flux. Viscosity is closely linked with stuffs workability. If the substance is thicker so it will be harder to utilize and use. Because of gravitation the viscousness of a stuff has to be right for the application of the stuff.

P9- Explain how building stuffs can deteriorate in usage


All stuffs have a life span and will finally necessitate replacing. There signifiers of impairment that may rush up the procedure or impact the stuff. They are ; corrosion, electrolytic action, fungous onslaught, insect onslaught, hoar onslaught, chemical and sulfate onslaught, flower, ultraviolet onslaught, emphasis weariness and the function of H2O in failure mechanisms.


Corrosion is a procedure which happens chiefly on metals. When the stuff is in contact with air and H2O rust will get down to organize and this will run down the stuff and turn it into an orange coloring material which stains.

Electrolytic action

Certain metals which come into contact with H2O may hold an electrolytic action. This is when one of the metals may eat. Materials for roofing and other signifiers of protection from rain do non eat due to electrolytic action so that long term corrosion can be avoided.

Fungal onslaught

Timber based stuffs are the most prone to fungal onslaught. Fungal onslaught can come in two signifiers, which are dry putrefaction and wet putrefaction. Dry putrefaction is caused by fungous onslaught, but wet putrefaction is the natural debasement of a stuff that is excessively damp. If a lumber stuff starts to degrade due to decompose it will go weak and could neglect to transport tonss required. However, dry putrefaction can distribute through other stuffs and can be really bad for any stuff that it passes onto. The lone manner to repair dry putrefaction is to take the septic stuffs and fungus.

Insect onslaught

Insect onslaughts occur chiefly on lumber stuffs. The insects burrow into the lumber and eat the stuff from the interior. This affects the strength of lumber greatly and will finally do the lumber to crumple to a pulverization.

Frost onslaught

Frost onslaught occurs when the temperature drops below stop deading. The H2O vapor on stuffs will solidify and organize ice crystals. The hoar can impact external brick work and do blasting off. If the stuff is porous so the H2O vapor inside the stuff will besides stop dead and spread out doing the stuffs to go structurally weaker and to interrupt outwards.

Chemical and sulfate onslaughts

Chemical onslaughts occur on rock stuffs. This is most common in the signifier of acerb rain. This bit by bit wears off the surface of the rock and removes any characteristics. Chemical onslaughts can besides happen from the combustion of fuels at they contain high sums of chemicals that can be harmful. In busy built up countries chemicals will layer up on stuffs and will do stain and harm.

Sulfate onslaughts occur chiefly on stuffs that have sulfates which can respond with concrete cement. Sulphate onslaughts can happen where H2O absorbs sulfates from the land and reacts with cement foundations and can weaken the edifices.


Flower is the consequence of H2O traveling through a stuff. The H2O absorbs the salt from the interior of the stuffs and when the H2O evaporates it leaves the salt crystals on the surface of the edifice. This is obvious to the oculus and but can be removed or will unclutter when all of the salts are dissolved or washed off.

Ultraviolet onslaught

Ultraviolet onslaughts are cause by the UV radiation in the Sun ‘s beams discoloring and decoloring the stuffs. This is obvious to see but can be prevented f the stuffs are treat right.

Stress weariness

Stress weariness is caused by changeless big sums of emphasis on a stuff that is structurally of import. This can do a lasting distortion of the stuff. Stress weariness is rare in stuffs but can besides be caused form forces from the air current. Roofs must be built so that they can defy the emphasis of the air current and the weights above them.

Role of H2O in failure mechanisms

Large sums of H2O can do failures in systems that are put in topographic point to forestall H2O. Guttering may interrupt with high sums of rain and could do H2O to leak into the edifice and cause internal harm. Water is non really syrupy so it can ooze through really little spreads and clefts. Water can besides do ocular staining due to the soil that is in the air.

P10- Explain the preventive and remedial techniques used to forestall impairment of building stuffs






The usage of chromium steel steel

Sacrificial anodes

Full picture programme

Electrolytic action

Metal dislocation and loss

Use metal which are similar and will non respond with each other


Fungal onslaught

Wet and dry putrefaction

Treated lumber


Removal and replacing of septic lumber

Prevent wet come ining lumber

Insect onslaught

Structure of lumber eaten away

Woodworm chemical intervention

Timber intervention utilizing force per unit area impregnated chemicals

Frost onslaught

Blasting of outer surface of brick work

Use category A or B technology bricks below damp-proof class

Good design

High specification facing brickwork

Motor joint care

Chemical onslaught

Breakdown of limestone

Replacement of rock with harder stuff

Treatment of surface rock

Sulphate onslaught

Breakdown of chemical bonds of cement

Use sulphate-resistance cement

Re-pointing utilizing sulphate-resistance cement howitzer


Formation of salt crystals

Wash down and take salt

Surface intervention with chemicals

Quality specification on bricks

Known beginning of littorals

Ultraviolet ( UV ) onslaught

Colour attenuation

UV fixed colorss resistant to UV visible radiation

Stress weariness

Metallic break and failure

Over design on ingredients

Factors of safety

High strength chromium steel steel ingredients

Role of H2O in failure mechanisms

Water staining

Frost onslaught


Dirt build up

Good design

Use of conditions trickles

Overhangs to direct H2O

Regular care of guttering floods and downpipes